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Chapter 5

Vocab.

TermDefinition
heredity the passing of genetic traits from parents to offspring
self-pollinating plant has both male and female reproductive structures
true-breeding plant plant in which its offspring will always have the same trait as the parent
cross-pollination pollen from one plant fertilizes the ovule of a flower on a different plant
characteristic a feature that has different forms in a population
trait a genetically determined characteristic
first-generation plants first set of offspring from a cross of two different plants
dominant trait the trait observed in the first generation when parents that have different traits are bred (stronger trait)
recessive trait a trait that is apparent only when two recessive alleles for the same characteristic are inherited (weaker trait)
ratio a relationship between two different numbers that is often expressed as a fraction
genes sets of instructions for inherited traits
alleles alternative forms of a gene that govern a characteristic, such as hair color
phenotype an organisms's appearance or other detectable characteristic
albinism a condition that prevents hair, skin, and eyes from having normal coloring
genotype the entire genetic makeup of an organism; also the combination of genes for one of more specific traits
homozygous having two dominant or two recessive alleles for a trait (PP or pp)
heterozygous having one dominant and one recessive allele for a trait (Pp)
Punnett square used to organize all the possible combinations of offspring from particular parents
probability the likelihood that a possible event will occur in any given instance of the event
incomplete dominance when one trait is not completely dominant over another
asexual reproduction does not involve the union of sex cells and in which one parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
mitosis in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
sex cells parent cells (egg and sperm) which carry only half (23) of the usual number of chromosomes
homologous chromosomes have the same sequence of genes and the same structure
meiosis a process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells (gametes or spores)
sexual reproduction the sex cells from two parents unite to produce offspring that share traits from both parents
fertilization when a sperm cell and an egg cell join
sex chromosomes determine the sex of an individual; known as X and Y
sex-linked disorders disorders that are carried on the X chromosome
colorblindness visual disorder that causes people to have trouble distinguishing
hemophilia disorder which prevents blood from clotting--can be fatal
pedigree a diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family
cystic fibrosis a disease which causes serious lung problems
selective breeding the human practice of breeding animals or plants that have certain desired traits
Created by: kmbarron