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chapter 8 vocab-bio

genes and dna

TermDefinition
Bacteriophage takes over a bacterium's genetic machinery and directs it to make more viruses
Nucleotides the small units, or monomers, that makes up DNA
Double Helix two strands of DNA wind around each other like a twisted latter
Base Pairing Rules T always pairs with A and C always pairs with G
Replication this process by which DNA is copied during the cell cycle
DNA Polymerases a group of enzymes bond the new nucleotides together
Central Dogma states that information flows in one direction, from DNA to RNA to protiens
RNA ribonucleic acid, is the chain of nucleotides, each made of a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base
Transcription is the process of copying a sequence of DNA to produce a complementary strand of RNA
RNA Polymerase enzymes that bond nucleotides together in a chain to make a new RNA molecule
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is an intermediate message that is translated to form a protein
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) forms part of ribosomes, a cells protein factories
Transfer RNA (tRNA) brings amino acids from the cytoplasm to a ribosome to help make the growing protein
Translation is the process that converts or translates, an mRNA message into a polypeptide
Codon a three nucleotide sequence that codes for an amino acid
Stop Codon signal the end of the amino acid chain
Start Codon which signals the start of translation and the amino acid methionine
Anticodon is a set of three nucleotides that is complementary to an mRNA codon
Created by: teegalyn3134