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Chapter 8 vocab

DNA and Genes

Nucleotide Small units or monomers that make up DNA
Double Helix Two strands of DNA wind around each other like a twisted ladder
Base Pairing Rules Thymine (T) always pairs with adenine (A), and cytosine (C) always pairs with guanine (G)
Replication The process by which DNA is copied during the cell cycle
DNA Polymerase A group of enzymes that bond new nucleotides together
Central Dogma A theory that states that in cells information only flows from DNA to RNA to proteins
RNA Ribonucleic acid
Transcription The process of copying a sequence of DNA to produce a complementary strand of RNA
RNA Polymerase Enzymes that bond nucleotides together in a chain to make a new RNA molecule
Messenger RNA (mRNA) Is an intermediate message that is translated to form a protein
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Forms part of ribosomes in a cells protein factories
Transfer RNA (tRNA) Brings amino acids from the cytoplasm to a ribosome to help make the growing protein
Translation The process that coverts or translates an mRNA message into a polypeptide
Codon A three-nucleotide sequence that codes for an amino acid
Stop Codon Signal the end of the amino acid chain
Start Codon Signals the start of translation and the amino acid methionine
Anticodon A set of three nucleotides that is complementary to an mRNA codon
Created by: uttertor7608



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