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Chapter 8 Biology

DNA and Genes

TermDefinition
nucleotides small units
double helix 2 strands of DNA wind around each other like a twisted ladder
base pairing thymine with adenine, cytosine with gaunine
replication DNA copied during the cell cycle
DNA polymerases enzymes that form bonds between nucleotides during replication
central dogma info flows in one direction, from DNA to RNA
RNA Ribonucleic acid
Transcription particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA
RNA polymerase is an enzyme that produces primary transcript RNA
Messenger RNA the form of RNA in which genetic information transcribed from DNA as a sequence of bases is transferred to a ribosome
ribosomal RNA RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms
Transfer RNA RNA consisting of folded molecules that transport amino acids from the cytoplasm of a cell to a ribosome
Translation the process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins
Codon is a sequence of three DNA or RNA nucleotides that corresponds with a specific amino acid or stop signal during protein synthesis
Stop Codon is a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation
Start Codon is the first codon of a messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript translated by a ribosome
Anticodon region of a transfer RNA is a sequence of three bases that are complementary to a codon in the messenger RNA
Created by: lintobry1509