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chapter 8 vocab

TermDefinition
Nucleotides are small units, or monomers, that make up DNA
Double helix model, in which two strands of DNA wind around each other like a twisted ladder.
Base pairing rules Thymine (T) always pairs with adenine (A), and cytosine (C) always pairs with guanine (G).
replication A process by which DNA is copied during the cell cycle.
DNA polymerases Bond the new nucleotides together.
central dogma theory that states that, in cells, information only flows from DNA to RNA to proteins.
RNA or ribonucleic acid, is a chain of nucleotides, each made of a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base.
transcription is the process of copying a sequence of DNA to reproduce a complementary strand of RNA.
RNA polymerases enzymes that bond nucleotides together in a chain to make a new RNA molecule.
mRNA is an intermediate message that is translated to form a protein.
rRNA forms part of ribosomes, a cell's protein factories.
tRNA brings amino acids from the cytoplasm to a ribosome to help make the growing protein.
translation is the process that converts, or translates, an mRNA message into a polypeptide.
codon is a three-nucleotide sequence that codes for an amino acid.
stop codon signals the end of the amino acid chain.
anti codon is a set of three nucleotides that is complementary to an mRNA codon.
start codon which signals the start of translation and the amino acid methionine.
Created by: webbzac4463