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Clinical Terms

Skeletal System

TermDefinition
Acromegaly An abnormal enlargement of the extremities of middle-age persons, especially the cranial and facial bones, and the bones of the hands and feet. Due to hypersecretion of HGH.
Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmune disorder which the synovial membrane of the joint becomes inflamed and thickens forming a mass called a mannus. The joint may ossify in time. Accompanies by fatigue, muscular atrophy, anemia and osteoporosis.
Osteoarthritis Most common form of arthritis. The area of the joint deforms. The articular cartilage softens and disintegrates. The joints become painful and movement restricted.
Lyme Arthritis A bacterial infection passed in the tick bite causing rash, flu-like symptoms, fatigue, and pains. Several weeks later intermitten arthritis of several joints may develop. Antibiotic treatment can be used to prevent development of arthritis.
Bunion Abnormal thickening, swelling, and inflammation of the bursa of the great toe, resulting in a lateral displacement. Usually caused by excessively tight shoes.
Claw-foot A deformity, sometimes hereditary, of the foot where the longitundinal arch is extremely high and there is a flexion of the distal joints.
Cleft palate/lip A congenital defect in the fusion of the embryonic maxillary and or median nasal process leading to a minor or major fissure of the soft and or bone tissues of the lip and palate. May be unilateral or bilateral, complete or incomplete. Surgical repair is
Craniofacial Dysostosis A hereditary defect in the ossification of the fetal cranial and facial bones resulting in acrocephaly (cone shaped skull), exophthalmic (bulging eyeballs), strabismus (eyes don't line up), and a parrot beaked nose. AKA crousons disease.
Cushings Disease Syndrome characterized by the excessive elaboration of cortisol (hormone used in carb and protein metabolism), resulting in truncal obesity, moon face, hypertension, acne, weakness and osteoporosis.
Deviated Nasal Septum A laterally deflected nasal septum that, if severe, may block a nasal passageway, requiring surgery.
Double-Jointed Unusually flexible joint that allows greater mobility than normal.
Dysostosis Term referring to defective ossification. Often a genetic defect in the normal calcification of fetal cartilage.
Exostosis A benign horny growth that projects from the surface of the bone, usually capped with cartilage.
Ganglion Small cystic lesion most commonly found in the collagenous connective tissue of a joint capsule of a tendon such as the small joint of the wrist. Easily removed surgically.
Knock-knee Deformity in which the knees rub or knock against each other while walking. Usually occurs in children as a result of irregular growth of the leg bones, injury to the ligaments, or injury to the ends of the bones.
Macrocephaly An abnormal enlargement of the cranium. May be due to improper fusion or development of the fontanels or to continued production of growth hormones.
Microcephaly An abnormally small cranium. Often due to premature closure of the fontanels.
Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica (Von Recklinghausen's Disease) A condition of prolonged or severe hyperparathyroidism causing chronic bone absorption and destruction due to continued demineralization of the bone tissue.
Osteogenesis Imperfecti (Brittle Bone) One of the most common hereditary bone diseases, characterized by a defective synthesis of the organic and inorganic matrix of bone. Thin poorly-formed bones, multiple fractures, loose-jointedness, and discoloration of the teeth are signs.
Osteoid Osteoma Small benign, painful, neoplasm, most commonly found in the diaphysis of the tibia and femur. Tends to occur in young adult males and with no known reason. Surgical removal required.
Osteomalacia Softening of the bones due to inadequate mineralization caused by insufficient calcium or vitamin D (rickets).
Osteoporosis Any condition in which bone breakdown outraces bone formation causes bones to be porous and weaken.
Osteomyelitis A pyrogenic infection of the bone and especially bone marrow. Most cases begin as an acute infection. Symptoms include malaise, fatigue, chills, leukocytosis, and intense throbbing pain in affected areas.
Pagets Disease Excessive abnormal bone remodeling. May be initiated by a virus. Usually localized in the spine, pelvis, femur, and skull. Rarely seen before age 40.
Polydactyly Congenial disorder usually resulting in the presence of supernumerary fingers or toes.
Rheumatism Generalized term used to denote any of a variety of disorders affecting the joints and related structures that are characterized by inflammation, pain, stiffness, limited motion, and degeneration of the tissue.
Syndactyly Common disorder, usually congenital, resulting in the persistence of webbing between adjacent fingers or toes, resulting in digits that are more or less completely attached.
Tenosynovitis An inflammation of the sheaths surrounding a tendon, associated most often with athletes. May also arise from bacterial infections.
Whiplash Injury to the cervical vertebrae caused by sudden jerking or backward forward motion. In severe cases, the dens of the axis may be driven into the medulla resulting in death.
Abnormal Spinal Curves May be congenital or result from disease or poor posture.
Lordosis Swayback, lumbar curve is accentuated. Can be from TB or Rickets.
Kyphosis Hunchback, Thoracic curve is accentuated. Common in aged individuals because of osteoporosis, but may be from TB of the spine, rickets, or osteomalacia.
Scolliosis Latural curvature usually in the thoracic region. Body braces and surgery are used fro severe cases.
Created by: shelleyw