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Biology

QuestionAnswer
Potts Fracture Fracture of the ankle joint with the lower parts of the fibula and tibia being broken.
Colles Fracture Fracture of the radius about 1inch above wrist.
Comminuted Fracture Bone fragments into 3 or more pieces.
Spiral Fracture Break occurs due to excessive twisting forces.
Depressed Fracture Bone portion pushed inward.
Compression Fracture Bone is crushed.
Epiphyseal Fracture Epiphysis seperates from diaphysis along epiphyseal plate.
Greenstick Fracture Bone breaks incompletely-one side of shaft breaks.
Vertebral Column 26 Bones 5 Regions
Cervical 7 bones in neck
Thoracic 12 bones
Lumbar 5 bones
Sacral 1 bone
Coccygeal 1 bone
Pectoral Girdle Attaches arms to axial skeleton, composed of clavicle and scapula.
Pelvic Girdle Pelvis is formed from the sacrum, coccyx, and coxal bones. Coxal bones formed from fushion of ilium, pubis, and ischium. Coxal bones have socket called acetabulum.
Parts of long bone Articular Cartilage, Epiphyseal Line, Spongy Bone (Red bone marrow), Medullary Cavity, Nutrient Forearm, Edosteum, Periosteum.
Periosteum Layers
Fibrous Layer Outermost layer, dense irregular connective tissue.
Osteogenic Layer Innermost layer, made of osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
Sharpey's Fibers Collagen fibers which extend from the fibrous layer to bone matrix to secure the periosteum.
Long Bone Longer than they are wide. ex: humurus, femur, fibula, tibia
Short Bone Roughly cube shaped. ex: scaphoid, lunate, calcaneus, navicular.
Vitamins In Bone
Vitamin D Has hormone calcitriol, promotes removal of calcium.
Vitamin C Maintains bone matrix.
Vitamin A Controls osteoblasts and osteoclasts activity.
Vitamin B12 Aids in osteoblast activity.
Bone Repair
Fracture Hematoma Broken blood vessels form clot.
Phagocytes and osteoclasts Remove traumatized tissue.
Procallus Blood capillaries organize the hematoms into granulation tissue.
Fibroblasts form periosteum and osteoprogenator cells Produce Collagen Fibers.
Soft Callus Chondroblasts form and produce fibrocartilage (fibrocartilagenous cells).
Hard Callus Fibrocartilage is converted to spongy bone.
Remodeling of spongy bone to compact bone.
Sutures
Coronal Suture Behind Forehead
Lamboidal Suture Above Occipital
Squamosal Suture Above Ear
Sagittal Suture Center of Head
Types of Movement
Flexion Bending, Decreases angle of joint.
Extension Increases angle of joint, hyperextension.
Abduction Movement of limb away from the midline or median plane of the body.
Adduction Movement of limb toward body.
Rotation Turning of a bone along its own axis.
Different Joints
Fibrous Joint No joint activity is present, most are immoveable.
Cartilaginous Joint Lack a joint cavity, not highly moveable.
Synovial Joint Fluid-containing joint cavity, freely moveable joints.
Synarthrosis Immoveable
Suture Occurs in-between bones of skull. Interlock with short connective tissue. Closed sutures are called synostoses.
Gomphosis Peg in socket
Synchondrosis Bar or plate of hyaline cartilage uniting bone. Only moves during growth.
Amphiarthrosis Slightly moveable
Syndesmosis Bones connected by ligaments, cords or bands of fibrous tissue. Amount of movement depends on length of connecting tissue.
Symphysis When articular surfaces of the bones are covered with articular cartilage (hyaline). Acts as shock absorber. Designed for strength with flexibility.
Diarthrosis Freely moveable
Gliding Joint Usually flat articulation, allow short gliding movements.
Hinge Joint One concave surface and one convex, permits flexion and extension only.
Pivot Joint Allows for rotation, atlas bone, head side to side to say "No".
Cartilage Tears Mostly involve meniscus from compression and stress.
Arthritis Pain, stiffness and swelling of joint, inflammatory disorder, synovial membrane thickens and fluid production decreases causing friction and pain.
Osteoarthritis Most common, chronic and degenerative, wear and tear arthritis, most prevalent in elders, more women than men, osteophytes.
Rheumatoid Arthritis Chronic inflammatory disorder, can occur at any age, more in women than men, joint tenderness and stiffness, autoimmune disease.
Gouty Arthritis Urate crystals caused by uric acid are deposited in the soft tissues of joints, causes painful attack of gout, more men than women.
Lyme Disease Inflammatory disease caused by spirochete bacteria transmitted by bites of ticks that live on mice and deer.
Membranes
Synovial Membrane Membrane composed of areolar tissue with elastic fibers and adipose tissue, used to line cavities of moveable joints.
Bursa Sac usually with lubricating fluid.
Articular synovial membranes Freely moving articulations, ligaments, and bursa.
Tendon Sheaths Surrounds tendon.
Epithelial Membrane Membrane composed of epithelium and connective tissue used to line a surface.
Mucous Membranes Lines body cavities that open to exterior, epithelial sheet is directly under a layer of loose connective tissue. This is called Laminae Propria.
Serous Membranes Moist membranes found in closed ventral body cavity, Parietal portion, visceral portion, results in thin clear serous fluid that lubricates surfaces of parietal and visceral layers, Pericardium, Pleura, Peritoneum.
SKIN
Epidermis What we see with our eyes, composed of stratified squamous epithelium.
Epidermis Layers
Stratum Corneum (horney layer) 20-30 rows dead cells, protect skin against abrasion and penetration, glycolipids between its cells barely waterproofs this layer.
Stratum Lucidum (clear layer) Thin translucent band just above stratum granulosum, 2-3 rows of clear, flat, dead keratinocytes.
Stratum Granulosum (granular layer) 3-5 cell layers, produce keratohyalin, lamellated granules.
Stratum Spinosum (spiny layer) Several cell layers thick, mostly tension-resisting bundles of prekeratin filaments, polyhedral shaped keratinocytes with spiny projections (8-10 rows), langerhan cells and processes of melanocytes.
Stratum Basale Deepest epidermal layer, mostly stem cells which divide to produce keratinocytes, melanocytes, and merklel cells.
Dermis 2nd major skin region, strong, flexible connective tissue, binds entire body together, Cells: fibroblasts, macrophages, white blood cells, matrix with collagen, elastic and reticular fibers.
3 Layers of the Dermis
Papillary Layer Areolar tissue with many blood vessels and elastic fibers. Dermal papillae Indentations into epithelium. Free nerve endings, meisseners corpuscles.
Reticular Layer Thicker 2nd layer, dense irregular connective tissue with collagen, elastic and reticular fibers, fibers allow for extensibility and elasticity, Krause corpuscles, ruffini corpuscles, collagen fibers align in a direction called lines of cleavage.
Hypodermis (superficial fascia) The subcutaneous layer, attaches to its underlying tissues, contains pacinian corpuscles.
Skin Colors
Melanin in Epidermis Pigment that makes up color of skin, produced in cells called melanocytes.
Carotene in Dermis Yellow-Orange pigment, accumulates in stratum corneum and hypodermis; most evident in thick skin.
Blood in capillaries of dermis Reddish, pass blood from arteries to veins.
Albinism An inherited condition, a lack of pigment that gives color to skin, eyes, and hair.
Cyanosis Blue colored due to heart failure or respiratory disease.
Erythema Reddened skin due to blushing, fever, hypertension, inflammation, or allergy.
Jaundice Yellow colored due to liver disorder.
Epidermal Derivatives
Hair Hairs are distributed over our entire skin except palms, soles, lips, nipples and some external genitalia, senses bugs on skin, hair on scalp, eyelashes, nose hairs.
Pili (hair) Flexible strands produced by hair follicles and consist of dead keratinized cells.
Regions 1. Shaft 2. Root
3 Layers of Keratinized cells 1. Medulla 2. Cortex 3. Cuticle
Hair Follicle Fold down from the epidermal surface into the dermis. Deep end of follicle forms a hair bulb, around each nerve is a sensory nerve ending called hair follicle receptors or root hair plexus Arrector Pili.
Types of Hair
Vellus hair Fine hair found on children and adult females.
Terminal hair Coarser, long hair of eyebrows and scalp, often darker.
Hair Disorders
Alopecia Baldness; hair not replaced as fast as it sheds.
Male pattern Baldness Genetically determined, sex-influenced condition.
Glands
Sebaceous glands Secrete serum made of fat, cholesterol, protein and salts to keep skin supple and inhibit bacteria.
Sudoiferous Glands Sweat is composed of apocrine sweat glands in groin, axilia, and areola, merocrine glands produce watery perspiration to cool body on palms, soles, and forehead.
Ceruminous Glands Found in lining of external ear canal, forms sticky substance called cerumen (ear wax).
Wound Healing
Healing of Abrasions Basal epidermal cells break contact with basement membrane. Cells enlarge and migrate until they meet.
Contact Inhibition (stops growth of cells) Migration stops when in full contact. Basal stem cells now divide to form new cells. 24-48 hours healing.
Deep Wounds 5 Phases
Inflammatory Response Formation of clot of fibrin threads. Vasodilation to bring white blood cells to fight infection.
Migratory Phase Clot becomes scab, epithelial cells migrate to bridge the wound. Fibroblasts travel along fibrin and form scar tissue of collagen and glycoproteins. Damaged vessels repair.
Proliferative Phase Growth of epithelial cells, formation of collagen fibers.
Maturation Phase Scab sloughs off, collagen is organized, fibroblasts decrease in number.
Remodeling Scar tissue collagen is more dense, fewer blood vessels, and may not have sweat glands, hair or sensory neurons.
Burns Tissue damage inflicted by intense heat, electric, radiation, and certain chemicals.
First Degree Burns Only epidermis damaged, localized redness, swelling and pain, heals in 2-3 days.
Second Degree Burns Injure epidermis and upper region of dermis. Mimic 1st degree burn, blisters appear. heals in 3-4 weeks.
Third Degree Burns Entire thickness of skin, Appears grey-white, cherry red or blackened.
Rule of Nines
Head front:4.5%, back:4.5% both:9%
Arm front:4.5%, back:4.5%, both:9%, both arms:18%
Trunk front:18%, back:18%, both:36%
Leg front:9%, back:9%, both:18%, both legs:36%
Skin Cancer
Squamous cell carcinoma Malignant tumor, skin and other areas.
Basal cell carcinoma Common, slow growing, usually facial, rarely metastasizes.
Kaposi Sarcoma Malignant, vascular, effects lower extremities, aids, usually middle aged men caused by herpes.
Malignant Melanoma Looks like mole, sides do not match, border is irregular, brown, red, blue, dark brown, bigger than pencil eraser, a little elevated.
Mutations When DNA gene is damaged or changed in such a way as to alter the genetic message carried by that gene.
Consequences
Apoptosis Cell dies off
Anaplastic Cells Not normal/harmful
Lack of contact inhibition Cell doesn't know when to stop reproducing.
Function of Kidney
Blood Filters the Hazardous nitrogenous wastes in our blood caused by the breakdown of proteins such as creatinine and urea.
Water Reabsorbs water loss during filtration.
Wastes Concentrates and removes wastes in liquid form (urine).
Layers of Kidney
Renal Capsule Thinner innermost layer protects kidney from infection.
Adipost Cushions and holds kidney in place.
Renal Fascia Outermost layer anchors in place to body wall.
Cortex Outer reddish area forms columns.
Medulla Inner region of kidney forms pyramids.
Pyramids Triangular structure composed of medullary tissue.
Papillae Structure at base of pyramids connects to calyces.
Columns Between pyramids made of cortical tissue.
Calyces Collect area for urine.
Pelvis Large cavity that collects urine and leads out into ureter.
Bladder and Sphincter
Urinary Bladder Expandable sac with receptors.
Internal Sphincter No control, empties around 200-400 ml of urine.
External Sphincter Voluntary override;
Ureter Tubes lead to the bladder Gravity and pressure controlled.
Urethra Tube to the external environment.
Nephron
Cortical Nephron
Juxtamedullary Nephron (deeper) Eliminates wastes from the body, regulates blood volume and BP, controls levels of electrolytes, regulates blood pH.
Parts of Nephron
Bowmans (glomerular) Capsule In cortex of the kidney, surrounds the glomerulus, site of filtration of the blood.
Glomerulus Network of capillaries surrounded by the Bowmans capsules, site of filtration.
Proximal convoluted tubule Where most of the water is absorbed by obligatory water reabsorption.
Descending limb of the loop of Henle
Loop of Henle
Ascending limb of the loop of Henle
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT) Away from the Bowmans capsule
Collecting Duct
Enzymes
When BP drops, JG (juxtaglomerular) cells secrete an enzyme renin.
Renin removes AA (Angiotensin-Aldosterone) from angiotensinogen to form angiotensin1
Angiotensin 1 goes to lungs, and enzymes convert it to angiotensin 2.
Angiotensin 2 Vasoconstricts to raise BP, reduces renal flow, stimulates secretion of aldosterone (hormone) from the adrenal cortex to stimulate thirst. (Aldosterone makes you thirsty).
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) which controls the permeability of DCT and CT to water.
No ADH Collecting tubules impermeable to H2O so there is more H2O in urine, urine is more dilute, kidneys cant reabsorb the extra H2O it needs.
ADH Present Urine is more concentrated, collecting tubules are permeable to H2O so more water is reabsorbed so urine is more concentrated.
Created by: shelleyw