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Bio 2 Exam 3

mitosis genetic material is copied and divided equally
meiosis daughter cells inherit half the genetic material of the parent cell
functions of mitosis growth, wound repair, asexual reproduction
G1 phase replication of organelles and addition of cytoplasm
S phase chromosome duplication
G2 phase final preparation for division
Prophase chromosomes condense and become visible in the light microscope
Prometaphase nuclear envelope breaks down; nucleolus dissappears
Metaphase formation of mitotic spindle is complete; chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
Anaphase centomeres splits; sister chromatids become daughter chromosomes
Telophase new nuclear envelope begins to form around each set of chromosomes; mitosis is complete when two independent nuclei have formed
Cytokinesis cytoplasm divides to form two daughter cells; occurs immediately after mitosis
chromosomes contain a single long double helix of DNA wrapped around proteins
chromatin DNA-Protein material
kinetochore site of attachment for spindle fibers
MTOC form spindle fibers
spindle fibers made up have alpha and beta tubulin
gene a section of DNA that governs a particular trait
autosomes non-sex chromosomes
allele variants of a gene
haploid possesses only one of each type of chromosome
homologous (homologs) same type
synapsis process where chromosomes pair up in Meiosis I
Non-disjunction erroneous pairing of chromosomes during Meiosis
G0 phase where non-dividing cells are permanently stuck in the G1 phase ex: brain cells, nerve cells
environment length of the M phase depends on the _____
the cell cycle is regulated and regulation varies among cells and organisms variations in phase length suggest that ____ and ____
Mitosis-promoting factor (MPF) present in the cytoplasm of the M-phase and induces mitosis in all eukaryotes
two distinct subunits: an enzyme kinase and cyclin what is MPF composed of?
kinase enzyme the phosphorylates a target protein
cyclin functions as a regulatory protein
cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) active when bound to the cyclin subunit and activity is dependent on concentration of cyclin
factors that determine if cell will pass G1 checkpoint cell size, nutrient availability, cell signals, health of DNA
factors that determine if cell will pass G2 checkpoint if chromosome replication has not proceeded properly, if DNA is damaged
factors that determine if cell will pass M checkpoint all kinetochores are safely attached to the spindle fibers, chromosomes have properly segregated and MPF is absent
benign tumor non cancerous tumor cell that stay within original tissue and do not invade
malignant tumor cancerous tumor cell that invades adjacent tissue
carcinoma 90 % of cancers arise from epithelial cells that line body surfaces (lung, breast or colon cancer)
sarcoma rare cancers, arise from connective tissue (bone, muscle, or fibrous tissue)
leukemias/lymphomas cancers of blood or immune cells
proto-oncogene a normal gene that stimulates growth or survival
oncogene mutated proto-oncogene that contributes to cancer
tumor suppressor gene normally inhibit cell growth or stimulate apoptosis; when lost/inactivated, the cell cycle 'brakes' are lost
p53 gene stops the cell cycle and helps to repair damaged DNA
karyotype number and types of chromosomes present in an organism
ploidy indicates the number of each type of chromosome present and is designated by the letter n
diploid organisms with two of each type of chromosome
Meiosis I the diploid parent cell produces two haploid daughter cells
Meiosis II the sister chromatids of each chromosome separate and go to different daughter cells
crossing over occurs when chromosomal segments are swapped between adjacent homologs, results in the formation of a chiasmata
reductive division end result of meiosis I, chromosome number is decreased
outcrossing gametes from different individuals combine to form offspring
aneuploid zygotes those with too few or too many chromosomes
downs syndrome have an extra copy of chromosome #21
triploid syndrome three pairs of homologous chromosomes
polyploid cells and organisms containing more than two paired sets of chromosomes, non-vertebrates
asexual reproduction produces clones that are genetically identical to one another, genetically identical to the parent
sexual reproduction fusion of gametes that have a chromosome makeup different from that of one another and from that of either parent
Sex Paradox asexual reproduction is a more efficient system than sexual reproduction; organisms reproducing asexually should be able to outcompete sexually reproducing organisms
Purifying Selection Hypothesis natural selection against deleterious alleles; over time should steadily reduce the number of numerical advantage of asexual reproduction
Changing-Environment Hypothesis offspring that are genetically different from their parents are more likely to survive and produce offspring if the environment changes
Blending Inheritance parental traits blend in such a way that their offspring have intermediate traits
Inheritance of acquired characteristics parental traits are modified and then passed on to their offspring
model organism species that has been widely studied and has particular experimental advantages
pure line produce identical offspring
hybrids pure lines that differed in one or more traits
phenotype an organism's observable features
genotype the alleles an organism conveys
Parental generation the original pure line parents that cross
F1 generation the offspring of the parental generation cross
F2 generation the offspring of the F1 generation cross
Independent Assortment alleles of different genes are transmitted independently of each other
Principal of Segregation pairs of alleles are separated during meiosis in the formation of gametes
Chromosome Theory of Inheritance states that chromosomes are composed of hereditary determinants
wild type most common phenotype for each trait
mutant differ from wild type, change in the gene
sex-linked inheritance various inheritance patterns that can occur when genes are carried on the sex chromosomes
autosomal inheritance genes on autosomes
linkage physical association of two or more genes found on the same chromosome
sex-linkage single gene is found on sex chromosome
pleiotropic genes that influence multiple traits
genetic recombination leads to the emergence of new phenotypes
multiple allelism traits depend on a combination of many genes
pedigrees family trees used to analyze human crosses that already exist because experimental crosses cannot be done on humans; record the genetic relationships among the individuals in a family
X-linked recessive allele males are more likely to exhibit the phenotype, unaffected parents of an affected individual are likely to be carriers
Created by: cohoonm



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