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Earth Science

E.S. Chapter 17 Section 1-2

weather the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place
climate based on observations of weather that have been collected over many years
nitrogen and oxygen what two gases make up 99% of the volume of clean, dry air?
0.039% carbon dioxide is present in only small amounts (approximately 0.039%), but it is an important component of air
water vapor the source of all clouds and precipitation
ozone a form of oxygen that combines three oxygen atoms into each molecule
nearly half emissions from transportation vehicles account for _______ ____ of the primary pollutants by weight
1000 millibars at sea level, the average pressure is slightly more than _____ _________, or slightly more than 1 kilogram per square centimeter
troposphere the lowermost layer of the atmosphere; it is generally characterized by a decrease in temp. with height
stratosphere the layer of the atmosphere immediately above the troposphere, characterized by increasing temps. with height, due to the concentration of ozone
mesosphere the layer of the atmosphere immediately above the stratosphere and characterized by decreasing temps. with height
sun nearly all of the energy that drives the Earth's variable weather and climate comes from the ___
rotation the spinning of Earth about its axis
revolution the movement of Earth in its orbit around the sun
23.5 degrees Earth's axis is not perpendicular to the plane of it orbit around the sun. instead its tilted ____ _______
June 21 or 22 summer solstice
December 21 or 22 winter solstice
September 22 or 23 autumnal equinox
March 21 or 22 spring equinox
heat the energy transferred from one object because of a difference in their temperatures
temperature a measure of the average kinetic energy of the individual atoms or molecules in a substance
conduction the transfer of heat through matter by molecular activity
higher; lower heat flows from the ______ temperature matter to the ______ temperature matter
convection the transfer of heat by mass movement of circulation within a substance
sun the ___ is the ultimate source of energy that causes our weather
300,000 Electromagnetic waves travel through the vacuum of space at ________ kilometers per second
radiation the transfer of energy (heat) through space by electromagnetic waves
reflection __________ occurs when an electromagnetic wave bounces off an object
scattering __________ produces a larger number of weaker rays that travel in different directions
50% about ____ of the solar energy that strikes the top of the atmosphere reaches Earth's surface and is absorbed
Created by: VickieJ10