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BIO Exam 3 - Stack 1

Being an Animal and Being Terrestrial

QuestionAnswer
animals multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes with tissue that develop from embryonic layers
What are amniotes? What are the surviving members of this group? - tetrapods that have a terrestrially-adapted egg - reptiles (including birds) and mammals
How do plants get their food? photosynthesis (carbon dioxide + water + solar E -> glucose + oxygen)
How do fungi get their food? - they take food from their environment (heterotrophic) - either from dead things (like when a mushroom grows off of a decaying tree) or from other living things (mutualistic [mycorrhiza] or parasitic [athlete's foot])
How do animals get their food? - from other organisms (heterotrophic) - can be herbivores, carnivores, or omnivores - ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination
What is there about cell structure that differentiates animals from plants and fungi? - animal cells closer to fungi cells than plant cells (both heterotrophic, have chitin, not cellulose) - animal cells don't have cell walls - animal cells don't have central vacuoles like plant cells do (fungi cells don't have any)
If the cell wall provides structural support to plant and fungal cells and connects them to one another, what is the major thing that provides structural support to animal cells and connects them to one another? the extracellular matrix, which is a meshwork that consists of glycoproteins (protein + carb.s) like COLLAGEN and other proteins and carb.s
Animals have two types of specialized cells not found in other multicellular organisms. What are they? muscle and nerve cells
tissues groups of cells with a similar appearance and a common function
nervous tissue - functions in the receipt, processing, and transmission of information - contains neurons (nerve cells), which transmit nerve impulses - a concentration of nervous tissue forms a brain
muscle tissue - responsible for nearly all types of body movement - consists of filaments containing proteins that enable muscles to contract - three types: skeletal, smooth, cardiac
What is happening during early embryonic development in animals? - cleavage (cell division) - [cells are getting smaller with each division] - blastocoel surrounded by cells at late blastula stage - cell differentiation after gastrulation (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm)...eventually leads to diff organs
Although some animals, including humans, develop directly into adults, the life cycles of most animals include at least one ___. larval stage
larva - sexually immature/juvenile form of an animal that is morphologically distinct from the adult - usually eats different food - can have a different habitat (ex. tad pool)
What is the development transformation by which an animal larva turns into a juvenile that resembles an adult but is not yet sexually mature? metamorphosis
What are Hox genes in general? - master control genes - play important roles in the development of animal embryos by controlling the expression of many other genes that influence animal morphology (control body plan)
What are the products of Hox genes? transcription factors
The amniotes are a group of tetrapods whose extant (surviving) members are ___. the reptiles (including birds) and mammals
Where do amniotes get their name? the major derived character of the clade: the amniotic egg
clade a group of species that includes an ancestral species and all of its descendants
amniotic egg an egg (not the gamete) that contains four extraembryonic, specialized membranes: the amnion, the chorion, the yolk sac, and the allantois
Why are the amnion, chorion, yolk sac, and allantois called extraembryonic membranes? - because they are not part of the body of the embryo itself - (they develop from from tissue layers that grow out from the membrane)
What is the main function of the amnion, amniotic cavity, and amniotic fluid? - protection - the amnion protects the embryo in a fluid-filled cavity that cushions against mechanical shock
What are the functions of the allantois and the membrane of the allantois? - the allantois is a disposal sac for certain metabolic wastes produced by the embryo; a sequester - the membrane of the allantois also functions with the chorion as a respiratory organ
What is the function of the chorion in conjunction with the allantois membrane? - the chorion and the membrane of the allantois exchange gases between the embryo and the air - (oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse freely across the shell)
What is the function of the yoke sac and yoke? - the yolk sac contains the yolk, a stockpile of nutrients - blood vessels in the yolk sac membrane transport nutrients from the yolk into the embryo - other nutrients are stored in the albumen
What are some characteristics of early amniotes? - laid shelled eggs - lived in warm, moist environments - small - sharp teeth (predators) - rib cage to ventilate their lungs - thick skin for protection and conservation of water
What distinguishes synapsids from diapsids? how many holes they have on their skull behind the eye socket (1=synapsid, 2=diapsid)
What are some of the unifying characteristics of reptiles? - scales made of keratin - internal fertilization - shelled eggs that are laid on land - ectothermic - almost all are diapsids
ectothermic organisms - (ecto=outside, thermic=heat ... get heat from outside) - those whose temperature is regulated by the external environment - doesn't use up as much energy as endotherms
endothermic organisms - (endo=inside, thermic=heat ... get heat from inside) - those who are warmed by heat generated by their own metabolism; this heat usually maintains a relatively stable body temp. higher than that of the external environment - more E, but independent
Looking strictly at the reptiles in the phylogeny of amniotes, what do the parareptiles represent? - they are a basal taxon (first major group to emerge) - so the earliest of the reptiles
What are the two major lineages of the reptiles? parareptiles and diapsids (2 holes in skull)
parareptiles a basal group of reptiles, consisting mostly of large, stocky quadrupedal herbivores
diapsid members of an amniote clade distinguished by a pair of holes on each side of their skulls
What are the two major lineages of the diapsids? lepidosaurs and archosaurs
lepidosaurs members of the reptilian group that include squamates (lizards and snakes), some marine reptiles, and tuataras
archosaurs members of the reptilian group that include crocodiles, alligators, pterosaurs, and dinosaurs (including birds)
dinosaurs - members of an extremely diverse clade of reptiles varying in body shape, size, and habitat - only extant members are birds
tuataras - a surviving lineage of lepidosaurs - found only in New Zealand - can live to be over 100 y.o. - predatory - not a lizard but has similar body plan
Explain the most likely theory regarding the phylogenetic position of turtles. turtles are basal to the subgroup that includes birds and crocodiles
How do crocodilians fit into the grand scheme of reptile evolution? - (crocodiles + alligators) - they are basal to the subgroup that contains pterosuars and dinosaurs
Birds are classed as ___. saurischian dinosaurs
What are most adaptations in birds associated with? flight
With flight, there is a premium on weight-saving modifications. These include ___ (4). - lack of a urinary bladder - only one ovary in the females of most species - small gonads in both males and females - lack of teeth - sponge-like structure of bones
What is a wing as far as overall general structure is concerned? a remodeled version of the tetrapod forelimb
What are feathers composed of? Where else is that found? - keratin - basically they are modified scales
What does internal structure of the feathers have to do with anything? - the shaft of feathers are hollow - the hooks and barbs allow the bird to shape the feathers to be more aerodynamic - downy feathers provide insulation (birds are endothermic)
Phylogenetic analyses of birds and reptilian fossils indicate that birds belong to the group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs called ___ (Tyrannosaurus rex is also a member of this group). theropods
theropods - bipedal saurischian dinosaurs - have reduced forelimbs - have claws and teeth (so birds evolved later on)
Archaeopteryx is the earliest known bird. What are some of it’s characteristics that relate it to both dinosaurs and birds? - to dinos: have teeth, clawed digits, and long tails with vertebre - to birds: have feathered wings and beaks
What are some flightless birds? - ratites (ostrich, kiwi, cassowary, emu) - penguins
Flying birds show great diversity in their adaptations. What are some examples? - ability to hover (hummingbirds) - ability to sift food from water (flamingo) - ability to lock toes around branches (great tit)
Created by: jessica.gvc