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Chapter 8 Vocab

Biology 1/DNA

What is a nucleotide? A small unit, or monomer, that makes up DNA.
What is a double helix? A model in which two strands of DNA wind around each other like a twisted ladder.
What are the base pairing rules? The bases of the two DNA strands always pair up in the same way.
What is replication? The process by which DNA is copied during the cell cycle.
What are DNA polymerases? Groups of enzymes that bond the new nucleotides together.
What is a central dogma? Where information flows in one direction, from DNA to RNA to proteins.
What is RNA? Ribonucleic acid or a chain of nucleotides, each made of a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base.
What is transcription? The process of copying a sequence of DNA to produce a complementary strand of RNA.
What are RNA polymerases? Enzymes that bonds nucleotides together in a chain to make a new RNA molecule.
What is Messenger RNA (mRNA)? An intermediate message that is translated to from a protein.
What is Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)? A form part of ribosomes, a cell's protein factories.
What is Transfer RNA (tRNA)? RNA that brings amino acids from the cytoplasm to a ribosome to help make the growing protein.
What is translation? The process that converts, or translates, an mRNA message into a polypeptide.
What is a codon? A three-nucleotide sequence that codes for an amino acid.
What is a stop codon? A signal at the end of the amino chain.
What is a start codon? A signal at the start of translation and the amino acid methionine.
What is an anticodon? A set of three nucleotides that is complementary to an mRNA codon.
Created by: reamlauren1566