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Boot Camp

Living Environment Regents Review

Homeostasis the ability of an organism to maintain a stable internal balanced environment.
Metabolism the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life.
Organic Molecules contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Example: C6H12O6
Carbohydrates (Starch) made from simply sugars Example: glucose
Proteins made from amino acids Example: meat
Lipids made from fatty acid and glycerin Example: oils
Nucleic Acid made from nucleotides Example: DNA
Organization of Living Things (Small --> Big) cells --> tissues --> organs --> organ systems --> organism
Organelles are the smallest parts of a cell & each has a specific function
Vacuoles store waste and water (large in plant cells, small in animal cells)
Ribosome where proteins are made and are located on the ER or in cytoplasm
Mitochondria The POWERHOUSE of the cell where energy is made. It is the site of cellular respiration
Formula for Cellular Respiration: glucose + oxygen --> carbon dioxide + water + ENERGY (ATP)
Chloroplasts only in plant cells and where the process of photosynthesis occurs
Formula for photosynthesis: sun’s energy + carbon dioxide + water --> glucose + water + oxygen
Nucleus is the control center of the cell and contains DNA (the program or code of life)
Cytoplasm is the liquid that fills the cell.
Cell Membrane 1. separates the contents of the cell from the outside environment 2. controls the transport of materials into and out of the cell.(selective permeability) 3. recognizes and responds to chemical signals by using receptor molecules
Passive Transport or Diffusion the movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration. (NO ENERGY USED)
Active Transport is the moving a molecule from LOW concentration to a HIGH concentration (USES ENERGY in the form of ATP).
Digestive System breaks down food into nutrients & puts them in the blood stream Major Organs: mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum
Circulatory System transports gasses and nutrients throughout the body Major Organs: heart, arteries, veins, capillaries
Respiratory System exchanges carbon dioxide and oxygen Major Organs: lungs, alveoli, diaphragm
Excretory System removes wastes from the blood and then from the body Major Organs: kidneys, bladder, urethra
Nervous Sytem control of the functioning of all body systems Major Organs: brain, spinal cord, nerve cells
Endocrine System chemically controls of the functioning of all body systems Major Organs: pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads
Respiration is the process used by ALL organisms to produce energy by using oxygen to burn sugar in order to release energy in the form of (ATP).
Transport movement of materials
Excretion the removal of all waste produced by the cells of the body
Synthesis the making or building of large molecules from smaller ones.
Photosynthesis is the process of storing the energy from the sun in the chemical bonds of glucose (sugar)
Cellular Respiration occurs in the Mitochondria of All Organisms both plants and animals
Enzymes special proteins that affect the rate of chemical reactions.
Enzyme reaction rates are affected by 1. Shape- “Lock and Key Model” if it is the wrong shape it will not work. 2. Temperature 3. pH
Dynamic Equilibrium is a steady state-balance or HOMEOSTASIS
Negative Feedback controls hormone levels to maintain homeostasis.
Digestion breaking large molecules down into smaller molecules
Skin and Circulation Systems the body's primary defense against disease-causing pathogens.
Surface Receptor Protein a molecule found on the cell membrane that the immune system recognizes as either part of the body or an outside invader.
Antigens are the receptor proteins on the membrane of pathogens (germs).
Antibodies are special proteins produced by the white blood cells that can be thought of as your body’s army to fight diseases.
Immunity our body’s ability to fight disease.
Vaccination is composed of a weakened or dead virus that triggers our white blood cells to produce antibodies to fight a specific pathogen
Diseases are caused pathogens Examples: virus, bacterium, and fungus
Two Types of Cell Division mitosis and meiosis
Mitotic Division asexual reproduction where a parent cell divides equally to produce 2 identical daughter cells
Meiotic Division sexual reproduction where a parent cell divides twice to produce either 4 sperm cells or 1 Egg (ovum)
Purpose of Mitosis growth, repair and asexual reproduction
Purpose of Meiosis produces gametes.
Gonads are the sex glands. (Ovaries and Testis)
Gametes are sex cells that unite in fertilization to form a ZYGOTE
Zygote a fertilized egg
Fertilization when a male and female gamete unite
Internal Fertilization when a male and female gamete unite inside an organism
External Fertilization when a male and female gamete unite outside an organism
Differentiation the process that transforms developing cells into specialized cells with different structures and functions.
Vagina entry point for sperm from the male and exit tube for the baby when it is born
Uterus where the baby grows and develops
Ovaries produce female gametes or eggs and the hormone estrogen
Placenta a is the organ that is attached to the baby via the umbilical chord and provides nutrients, oxygen to the fetus and removes waste through the process of diffusion.
Oviducts or Fallopian Tubes where fertilization occurs
Testis produces sperm and the hormone testosterone
Scrotum pouch enclosing the testes keeping the sperm at an optimum temperature for development
Vas Deferens tube carrying sperm away from the testes
Prostate Gland add lubricating and other fluids to the sperm
Urethra tube through the penis carrying sperm to the outside of the body
Penis used for internal fertilization of the female
Amniocentesis removing some of the cells from the amniotic fluid which protects the fetus and analyzing their DNA.
Karyotype a visual map of chromosomes. Can be used to see if the fetus has any chromosomal problems like Down’s syndrome
Cancer uncontrolled cell division.
Heredity the passing of genetic information from one generation to the next through reproduction.
DNA a double stranded helix polymer of nucleotides that contains the genetic code of the individual.
Nucleotide the basic unit of DNA which is made of a phosphate, a sugar and a base.
RNA a single stranded polymer that is produced by DNA.
3 Types of RNA Messenger RNA, Transfer RNA and Ribosomal RNA
Protein Synthesis DNA sends a messenger single (m RNA) to the ribosome where the ribosome reads the message and directs the t RNA (TRUCKS) to bring it Amino Acids. The ribosome then assembles the Amino Acids together in the correct order TO MAKE A PROTEIN.
Mutation any alteration of the DNA sequence which changes the normal message carried by the gene
4 Types of Mutation 1. Substitution- ONE BASE IS PUT IN THE PLACE OF ANOTHER 2. Deletion-A BASE IS LEFT OUT 3. Addition-A BASE IS ADDED 4. Inversion-BASES ARE SWITCHED
Clones identical genetic copies
Gene contains hereditary information and carries a separate piece of information
Crossing Over when gametes are formed in each parent and genetic recombination, which is the combining of the genetic instructions of both parents into a new combination in the offspring when fertilization occurs
Replication make a copy
Regulation allows cells to respond to their environment and to control and coordinate cell growth and division
Phenotype an individual's observable traits
Genotype the two alleles inherited for a particular gene
Allele a variant form of a gene
Dominate trait that is expressed over another trait
Recessive trait that is hidden behind the dominant trait.
Genetic Engineering a technology that humans use to alter the genetic instructions in organisms.
Gene Splicing cutting DNA and placing it into another organism
Restriction Enzyme an enzyme that cuts DNA in specific places and is an essential tool in gene splicing as well as in Gel-electro phoresis.
DNA Fingerprint just like a bar code the more common the bars the more common heritage or ancestry
Selective Breeding a process of picking parents with favorable traits to produce those traits in the offspring
Species a group of closely related organisms that share certain characteristics and can produce offspring capable of reproduction.
Evolution the process by which organisms have changed over time from simple, singlecelled: complex-single-celled: complex, multicellular to complex organisms.
Natural Selection nature selects those individuals who are best fit for the environment
Overproduction more offspring are produced than can survive
Competition the fight for limited resources
Variation differences among organisms in a species (sexually reproducing organisms have more variation than asexually reproducing organisms)
Adaptive Value Any trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce under a given set of environmental conditions
Extinction the disappearance of an entire species caused by a failure to adapt to a changing environment. E
Ancestry cladograms or family tree
Ecology the study of how organisms interact with the living and nonliving things.
Biotic living parts of the ecosystem
Abiotic non-living parts of the environment
Examples of Biotic Factors plants and animals
Examples of Abiotic Factors rocks, air, ph, sunlight
Niche a species’ role in it’s environment
Population all the organisms of a species that live in the same area
Community all the different populations in an area
Biosphere all of earth's ecosystems
Competition the struggle for resources among organisms
Limiting Factors the living and non living things in the environment that limit the size of populations. Examples: Food, Shelter, Sun, Space, Oxygen
Carrying Capacity the maximum population (number or organisms of any species) that an ecosystem can support.
Predators kill and eat other organisms called Prey.
Autotrophs producers --> make their own food by photosynthesis
Heterotrophs must eat something for food (consumers)
Herbivores can only eat plants
Carnivores can only eat animals
Omnivores can eat plants AND animals
Consumers same as heterotrophs
Decomposers break organisms down and return nutrients to the soil. They are the recyclers in the ecosystem
Scavengers eat dead organisms that they did not kill themselves Example: vultures
Parasites live off of another organism (host) and do not kill them usually (the parasite benefits, the host is harmed)
Producers same as autotrophs
Food Chain diagram of the feeding relationship of organisms in an ecosystem
Rules in Drawing a Food Chain 1. All food chains begin with a Producer (Autotroph or Plant) 2. All food chains end with a Decomposer 3. Arrows in a food chain show the direction of the energy flow
Food Web diagram composed of many interlocking food chains
Sun the primary source of life energy on the earth
Energy Pyramid a diagram showing the energy available at each trophic level
Ecological Succession the orderly sequence of changes in the communities living in a given ecosystem over time.
Pioneer Organisms organism that populates a region after a natural disaster or any other event that may have caused most life in that area to disappear.
Climax Community the development of vegetation in an area over time, has reached a steady state.
Ecological Succession in a Pond plants and organisms die over time --> Sediment builds --> pond gets shallow --> wwamp develops --> grassy field --> forest
Carbon/Oxygen Cycle photosynthesis and respiration
Water Cycle evaporation, condensation, precipitation
Nitrogen Cycle N2, nitrogen fixing bacteria, plants, animals, waste
Biodiversity measurement of the degree to which species vary within an ecosystem
How Man has Affected Biodiversity 1. Cutting down trees 2. Planting all of the same crop in an area 3. Removed vegetation for houses, parking lots, roads, etc. 4. Killed organisms and destroyed the food web
Renewable Resources resources that can replenish themselves Example: trees, wind,
Nonrenewable Resources resources that take a long time to replace or form Example: coal, oil
Reduce cut down on the amount used
Reuse use it for another application
Recycle can be used to make the product again
Pollution a harmful change in the chemical makeup of the air, water, or soil.
Direct Harvesting the destruction or loss of a species by over hunting
Land Use finding the best way to live in the environment- building around trees instead of cutting them down and planting new ones.
Habitat Destruction destroying a part of the natural environment
Deforestation removing forests for wood or clearing trees for farms
Invasive Species plants, animals, or pathogens that are non-native (or alien) to the ecosystem Example: zebra mussels, purple loosestrife, dandelions
Industrialization increases pollution of air and water- uses more energy, water, fossil and nuclear fuels
Water Pollution from sewage, wastes from homes and factories and animal wastes
Toxic Waste DDT
Thermal Pollution heat pollution
Air Pollution from burning fossil fuels
Acid Rain Sulfur and nitrogen compounds in air pollution dissolve in the moisture of the atmosphere to form acids, causing rain to have a low pH (acidic) --> kills trees and destroys historical artifacts.
pH scale 14 <--------- basic -------> 7 <--------- acid ----------> 0
Global Warming an increase in the earth’s temperature caused by an increase in greenhouse gases
Greenhouse Effect caused by increasing amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere caused by the increasing use of fossil fuels for energy
Ozone Depletion hole in ozone layer caused by use of fluorocarbons. *
Ozone acts as a Sun block for all organisms on the earth!!!
Independent Variable the one thing that “I change” to test my hypothesis. Goes on the X axis
Dependant Variable what you measure in the experiment and what is affected during the experiment. Goes on the Y axis
Control Group the group that is studied under the normal conditions
Experimental Group the group that is identical to the control group with the ONE CHANGE or difference (the Independent Variable)
Ways to Make an Experiment More Valid 1. Repeat the experiment 2. Increase the number of specimens or trials. 3. Peer review
Eyepiece the part of a microscope that you look through (closest to the eye) usually 10x
Objective Lens the magnifying part of a microscope closest to the slide (high power = usually 40x; low power = usually 10x)
Fine Adjustment Knob the part of a microscope that is used to focus on low & high power
Course Adjustment Knob the part of a microscope that is used to focus only on low power
Stage the part of a microscope where the slide is placed
Stage Clips the part of a microscope that holds the slide in place
Diaphragm the part of a microscope that controls the amount of light used
How to Make a Wet Mount Slide Put the cells on the center of a slide, put a drop of water with a dropper onto the cells (do not touch the cells); lower a cover slip slowly at an angle (to reduce the number of air bubbles)
Paper Chromatography a laboratory technique that is used to separate different molecules from one another. (Separation of compounds in a solution by size and color).
Gel electrophoresis technique used to show how species are related to one another
Indicators for pH, Glucose, Starch color or state change indicating the presence of a particular substance.
Dichotomous Keys tools to help in the classification of organisms
Restriction Enzymes cut DNA into fragments, which are placed into a well in a gel plate
Created by: migliorej