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Bio Review

Living Environment Regents Review - Terms

Cell Membrane made of lipids and proteins; allows things to move in and out of the cell = gate keeper! made of lipids and proteins; selective permeability – that is only some molecules can pass through it
Cell Wall Only found in plant cells; provides the cell with it's shape and protection
Nucleus The control center of the cell; contains the DNA or genetic code
Chloroplast Only found in plant cells. This organelles capture sunlight and changes it into food by the process of photosynthesis
Cytoplasm The jelly-like substance that holds all the organelles in place
Ribosomes This is where proteins are made.
Vacuole store waste and water
Mitochondria The power house of the cell. This is where ATP or energy is made.
Golgi Apparatus packs and ships molecules like proteins and lipids (fats). Think packaging plant!
Endoplasmic Reticulum Follows instructions from the nucleus to make proteins. Think of it as a large factory!
Lysosomes break down waste. Think of them as a garbage truck or recycling center!
Observation What is seen or measured.
Inference A conclusion based on observation or evidence.
Hypothesis An untested prediction written using an "If.. then" statement
Controlled Experiment Compares the results of an experiment between two (or more) groups.
Experimental Group Group being tested or receiving treatment. (ex: new drug)
Control Group “Normal” group. Should be identical to experimental group in every way except one: it does not receive the treatment
Independent Variable Variable that is being tested (ex: new drug). In a graph the independent variable is always plotted on the X axis.
Dependent Variable Variable that is measured at the end of an experiment; the results (ex: does patient get better?) The dependent variable is always plotted on the Y axis.
Objective Observation an observation based on fact
Subjective Observation an observation based on opinion
Constants factors in an experiment that are kept the same and not allowed to change
Quantitative Data data consisting of numbers
Qualitative Data data consisting of verbal descriptions or information gathered using scales without numbers
Opinion A personal belief that may be biased
Nutrition Autotrophs make their own food, while heterotrophs eat other organisms.
Excretion removal of cells' waste ( sweat, urine, breathing out CO2)
Transport Materials moving throughout our bodies
Respiration Organisms get energy by breaking the bonds of sugar molecules. The released energy is used to make a molecule of ATP, which gives all organisms their energy.
Growth Increase in size, change in shape/ function
Synthesis Building or making simple things into complex things
Regulation coordination and control of other life functions.
Reproduction Making more of your type of organism
Homeostasis is the ability of an organism to maintain a stable internal balanced environment.
Metabolism How fast your body can do all eight life processes
Protein made from amino acids and make hormones Example: meat
Carbohydrate made from simple sugars (like glucose) and they supply energy Example: fruit
Lipid made from fatty acids and glycerol and store energy Example: oil
Nucleic Acids made of nucleotides; DNA and RNA
Enzymes are catalysts – they affect the rates of chemical reactions.
pH a measure of the amount of acid or base present
Lock and Key Model the shape of the active site on the enzyme matches up with the shape of the substrates
Diffusion movement of molecules from high concentrations to low concentrations. Requires no energy (passive transport).
Active Transport requires the use of energy, usually moving molecules from a low concentration to a high concentration (against the flow of diffusion).
Osmosis the diffusion of water into or out of the cell. If water diffuses into the cell, the cell swells (get larger) and may burst. If it loses water (being put in salt water for example) it will shrivel up.
Glucose A monosaccharide which is small enough to cross the cell membrane; made of only one sugar
Starch A polysaccharide which is too large to cross the cell membrane; made of many sugars
Asexual Reproduction a method of reproduction in which all the genes passed on to the offspring come from a single individual or parent
Birth The time in which the fetus is born
Cancer uncontrolled cell growth
Cleavage splitting or dividing a cell
Cloning a technique used to make identical organisms
Development the changes that occur from the fertilized egg to a complete individual; occurs by mitosis and differentiation of cells
Amniocentesis removing some of the cells from the amniotic fluid which protects the fetus and analyzing their DNA.
Differentiation the process that transforms developing cells into specialized cells with different structures and functions
Egg A sex cell produced by a female
Embryo an organism in the early stages of development (prior to birth)
Estrogen a hormone (produced by the ovaries) that controls female sexual development and the reproductive process
External Fertilization the process that combines a sperm and an egg cell outside an organism
Fertilization the process that combines a sperm and an egg cell
Fetus the unborn, developing young of an animal during the later stages of development
Gametes Sex cells, sperm and egg
Growth The increase in the size and number of cells
Internal fertilization the process that combines a sperm and an egg cell inside an organism
Meiosis the process that results in the production of sex cells (sperm and egg)
Mitosis the process of cell division it which a parent cell divides into two new cells which contain the same genetic information as the parent cell. Used for growth and repair.
Negative Feedback Loop controls hormone levels to maintain homeostasis
Ovaries the organ of the human female reproductive system that produces and egg cell, the female gamete
Oviduct the part of the female reproductive system where the egg cell is fertilized by the sperm
Placenta the organ that enables nutrients and oxygen to pass from the mother's blood to the fetus, and waste products to pass from the fetus to the mother's blood
Progesterone A hormone associated with sexual development and the reproductive system
Sex Cells Sperm and egg
Sexual Reproduction a method of reproduction that involves two parents to produce offspring that are genetically different from either parent
Sperm male sex cells made in the testes
Testes the male reproductive organ that produces sperm and the hormone testosterone
Testosterone a hormone associated with male sexual development and reproduction
Ultrasound method to see images of a fetus
Umbilical Cord connects the embryo to the placenta that carries essential materials to the fetus
Uterus the organ, in, females, where the embryo develops into a fetus
Zygotes the cell that results from the joining of the egg and sperm
Heredity The passing of genetic traits from parent to offspring
Gregor Mendel "Father of Genetics" known for his study with pea plants
Genetics The study of genes and heredity.
Trait A genetically determined characteristic. Ex. Eye color, hair color, hitchhiker’s thumb
Dominant The trait that powers over the other.
Recessive The trait that is hidden behind the dominant trait. This trait is only expressed when there is one allele from mom and one allele from dad.
Genes A portion of your DNA that codes for a specific protein
Allele one of two or more versions of a gene
Homozygous When the two alleles are the SAME
Heterozygous When the two alleles are DIFFERENT
Genotype The genetic makeup of a cell or organism; usually referring to a specific characteristic. Written using letters Tt, TT, tt
Phenotype The outward appearance of an organism Ex. Brown eyes, blond hair, freckles etc.
DNA The blueprint or the code of life
Gene contains hereditary information
Chromosome Found in the nucleus and contains the DNA. Each human being has 46 of these.
Karyotype a visual map of chromosomes. Can be used to see if the fetus has any chromosomal problems like Down's Syndrome ( 3 copies of chromosome# 21)
Amino Acid The building blocks of proteins
RNA used for making proteins
Replicate to copy
mRNA "messenger" takes information from the DNA to the RNA
tRNA Makes proteins
rRNA moves from the nucleus to the ribosome
Evolution is the process by which organisms have changed over time from simple, single celled: complex-single-celled: complex, multi-cellular to complex organisms.
Natural Selection nature selects those individuals who are best fit for the environment.
Overproduction more offspring are produced than can survive
Competition the fight for limited resources
Variation differences among organisms in a species (sexually reproducing organisms have more variation than asexually reproducing organisms)
Adaptive Value (Traits) Any trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce under a given set of environmental conditions
Extinction is the disappearance of an entire species caused by a failure to adapt to a changing environment. Extinction occurs when the Environment changes and the Species cannot adapt.
Abiotic Nonliving parts of the environment
Atmosphere The air covering Earth's solid and liquid surface
Autotroph An organism that produces its own food
Biodiversity The variety of species in an area
Biosphere The area in which all living organisms reside; including water, land and air
Biotic The living parts of the environment
Canopy The uppermost branches of trees
Carnivore An organism that eats only consumers
Carry Capacity The largest population of any single species that an area can support
Climate The long term pattern of weather conditions in a region
Commensalism An interspecies interaction in which one organism benefits, while the other neither benefits nor is harmed
Community A combination of all the different populations that live and interact in the same environment
Coniferous Trees that retains their needles year-round and reproduces with cones
Consumer an organism that obtains energy from producers= heterotroph
Deciduous Trees that have adapted to winter temperatures by dropping their leaves and going dormant during the cold season
Decomposer an organism that consumes dead organisms and organic waste i.e bacteria
Desert A biome characterized by a very dry, arid climate
Niche The specific role played by an organism in the ecosystem
Ecological Succession The process by which an existing community is replaced by another community
Ecology The study of how living things interact with each other and their environment
Ecosystem All the living and non-living things that interact in a specific area
Emigration The movement of individuals out of a population and into another
Energy Pyramid A diagram showing how food energy moves through the ecosystem
Environment Every living and non-living thing that surrounds an organism
Food Chain a picture that shows the specific relationship among organisms
Exponential Growth Dramatic increase in population over a short period of time
Geosphere The features of Earth's surface-- such as the continents, rocks, and sea floor
Grassland A biome where the primary plat life is grass
Habitat The place where a plant and animal live
Herbivore An animal that eats only plants
Heterotroph An organism that cannot make its own food
Host The organism in a parasitic relationship that provides the home and/ or food for the parasite
Hydrosphere All the Earth's water, ice, and water vapor
Immigration The movement of individuals into a population from another population
Keystone Species Organism that has an unusually large effect on its ecosystem
Limiting Factors Any factor in the environment that limits the size of a population
Mutualism An interspecies interaction in which both organisms benefit from one another
Omnivore A consumer that eats both consumers and producers
Parasite An organism that survives by living and feeding on other organisms
Parasitism An interspecies interaction in which one organism benefits , while the other is harmed
Pioneer Species Organism that is the first to live in a previously uninhabited area
Population All the individuals of a single species that live in a specific area
Population Density The number of organisms within a given space
Predator An animal that hunts and kills other animals for food
Prey An animal that is hunted and killed by predators
Primary Consumer The first consuming organism in a food chain, that makes up the second trophic level
Primary Succession The establishment and development of an ecosystem in an area that was previously uninhabited
Producer An organism that makes its own food from light energy and inorganic materials; an autotroph
Scavenger A carnivore that feeds on the bodies of dead organisms
Secondary Consumer The second consuming organism in a food chain, that makes up the third trophic level
Secondary Succession The reestablishment of a damaged ecosystem in an area where the soil was left intact
Succession The sequence of biotic changes that regenerate a damaged community or create a community in a previously uninhabited area
Symbiosis A close ecological relationship between two or more organisms of different species that live in direct contact with one another
Tertiary Consumer The third consuming organism in a food chain, that makes up the fourth trophic level
Trophic level The level of nourishment in a food chain or food web
Tundra a biome found at latitudes where winters last as long as ten months a year
Watershed A region of land that drains into a river, a river system, or another body of water
Hormones Chemicals messages produced in the endocrine glands
Dynamic Equilibrium is a steady state- balance= Homeostasis
Pancrease secretes insulin to regulate blood sugar
Insulin A hormone secreted from the pancreas that prompts glucose to move from the blood into body cells, resulting in lower glucose levels in the blood.
Surface receptor proteins a molecule found on the cell membrane that the immune system recognizes as either part of the body or an outside invader
Antigens Receptor proteins found on the membrane of pathogens or germs
Antibodies special proteins produced by white blood cells that can be thought of as your body's army to fight disease.
Immunity Your body's ability to fight disease. One you have been exposed to a specific virus, white blood cells remember the antigens and produce antibodies that prevent you from getting sick from the same virus a second time
Vaccination made of a weakened or dead virus that triggers our white blood cells to produce antibodies to fight a specific pathogen
Disease Caused by pathogens
Pathogens Bacteria, virus, fungi
Cancer occurs when certain genetic mutations in a cell can result in uncontrolled cell division. Cancer can be caused either by heredity or environmental factors like radiation, chemicals or virus
White bloods Cells Produce antibodies needed to fight infections
Immune System Body system that helps to fight infections
Digestive System Breaks down food into nutrients and puts them in the blood stream. Similar to vacuoles and lysosomes
Circulatory System Carries gases and nutrients throughout the body. Similar to cytoplasm, ER, Golgi body
Respiratory System Exchanges carbon dioxide and oxygen. Similar to the cell membrane
Excretory System Removes waste from the blood stream and then away from the body. Similar to the cell membrane or vacuole.
Nervous System Fast control of the functioning of all body systems. Similar to the nucleus.
Endocrine System Slow control of the functioning of all body systems. Similar to the nucleus.
Photosynthesis Sun's Energy + Carbon dioxide + water --> glucose + water + oxygen.
Selective Breeding The process of picking parents with favorable traits to produce those traits in the offspring Ex. domestic animals and hybridization of plants.
Species a group of closely related organisms that share certain characteristics and can produce offspring capable of reproduction
Mutation alteration of the DNA sequence which changes the normal message carried by the gene
Ancestry shown in cladograms or family tree
Carbon oxygen cycle photosynthesis and respiration
Water Cycle Evaporation, condensation, precipitation
Nitrogen Cycle N2, Nitrogen fixing bacteria, plants, animals, waste
Renewable Resources resources that can replenish themselves if not abused ( Planting of trees)
Nonrenewable Resources resources that take a long time to replace or form (coal, oil)
Pollution harmful change in the chemical makeup of air, water, or soil.
Direct harvesting destruction or loss of species by over hunting
Habitat Destruction destroying part of the natural environment
Deforestation Deforestation
Invasive Species not normally found in an environment Ex. Purple Loosestrife, zebra mussels, dandelions
Acid Rain Sulfur and nitrogen compounds in air pollution dissolve in the moisture of the atmosphere to form acids, causing rain to have a low pH (acidic). Acid rain kills trees and destroys historical articfacts.
Global Warming an increase in the earth's temperature caused by an increase in greenhouse gases( Green House Effect is caused by increasing amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere caused by the increasing use of fossil fuels
Ozone Depletion hole in ozone layer caused by use of fluorocarbons. Ozone acts as a Sun Block for all organisms on the earth
Organic molecules Contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Example: C6H12O6
Inorganic molecules Do not contain all three: Hydrogen, Carbon, Oxygen Examples: H2O, CO2
Photosynthesis reactants CO2= Carbon dioxide, H2O= water, Sunglight
Photosynthesis products C6H12O6= Glucose and O2= oxygen
Cellular respiration The process of converting simple sugars and oxygen into carbon dioxide, water, and energy
ATP A product of cellular respiration known as energy
Reactants of cellular respiration Hint: Think of what you take in by breathing and eating C6H12O6= Glucose, O2= Oxygen
Products of cellular respiration Hint: Think of what you give off by exercising and breathing CO2= Carbon dioxide, H20= water, ATP= Energy
Reactants Raw materials( to the left of the arrow in an equation)
Products what is made or produced (to the right of the arrow in an equation)
Chloroplasts Found only in plants cells and where photosynthesis takes place. Green in color and contain chlorophyll.
Chlorophyll The green pigment found in chloroplasts
Mitochondria Found in both plant and animal cells. Where cellular respiration takes place. Produces ATP (energy). Think "power house" of the cell.
Stoma Opening found in chloroplasts that allow the movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in and out of the chloroplast
Guard Cells control the opening of the stoma
Aerobic Respiration Requires oxygen to produce 36 ATP (energy molecules), takes place in the mitochondria, produces waste products of water and carbon dioxide
Anaerobic Respiration without oxygen, produces 2 ATP (energy) takes place in the cytoplasm,produces, carbon dioxide, water and lactic acid as waste products
Lactic Acid A waste product produced during anaerobic respiration; usually the cause of muscle cramps after exercising.
Cloning Making an exact copy of a cell or organism by the process of MITOSIS.
Budding a new individual develops from an outgrowth on the body of a plant or lower level organism. Examples: Hydra, Yeast, Sponges, Plants
Binary Fission The splitting of a parent cell into two equal parts. Examples: Bacteria, Ameoba, Paramecium
Regeneration The replacement, or regrowth of lost or damaged body parts. Examples: Sea Star (Star fish), Lobster, Lizards
Sporulation Produces and releases spores which develop into a new organism. Example: Bread mold
Vegetative Propagation The production of new plants from the roots, stems, or leaves of the parent plant. Examples: Stem cutting, Tuber, Bulb, Runners
Haploid Unpaired chromosomes; 1/2 number of chromosomes. In a human the haploid number is 23.
Diploid two complete sets of chromosomes; one from each parent. In a human, the diploid number is 46.
Homologus a matching pair of chromosomes; one from each parent. Each chromosome has a similar shape, size and markings
Chromatid duplicated chromosome that is condensed (tightly packed together).
Chromatin loosely packed DNA.
Organization of Living Things (Smallest to Biggest) cells --> tissues --> organs --> organ systems --> organism
Organelles smallest parts of a cell
Created by: migliorej