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Bio Test 2

Chapter 47 Circulatory System

circulatory systems transport necessary materials to all the cels of an animal's body and transport waste products away from the cells so they can be released into the environment
simple circulatory system organisms with gastrovascular cavity. surrounding water acts as a circulatory system
gastrovascular cavity body cavity with a single opening to the outside that functions as both mouth and anus
true circulatory systems contain blood/hemolymph, vessels and heart
open circulatory system one or more hearts that pump fluid through vessels that open into the animal's body cavity called the hemocoel
in open circulatory system nutrients and waste are exchanged by diffusion between the hemolymph and body cells and hemolymph eventually returns to the heart
hemolymph mixed fluid. part of open circulatory system
closed circulatory system blood and interstitial fluid are separated and differ in their components and chemical composition
Blood watery solution containing solutes to be transported throughout the body. Pumped by heart
single circulation blood pumped from heart to lungs to tissues back to heart
double circulation blood pumped from heart to the lungs back to heart and the pumped to tissues then back to the heart
Single circulation heart has one atrium and one ventricle
double circulation heart has two atria and two ventricles
arteries carry blood away from the heart
veins carry blood towards the heart
intermediate circulation on land blood pumped from heart to lungs and less skin
intermediate circulation on water blood pumped from heart to skin. Skips lungs
pulmonary circulation delivers oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium then to left ventricle
systemic circulation delivers deoxygenated blood from the tissues to the right atrium then right ventricle
4 components of blood plasma, leukocytes, erythrocytes and thrombocytes/platelets
plasma water and dissolved organic and inorganic nutrients. base. transports, keeps body's pH, maintains fluid balance
leukocytes white blood cells
erythrocytes red blood cells
hematocrit volumes of blood that is composed of red blood cells
hemoglobin in cytosol of red blood cells.
each hemoglobin carries ___ oxygens 4
anemia lower than normal amounts of hemoglobin
platelets cell fragments that lack a nucleus
thrombocytes intact cells
platelets and thrombocytes play crucial role in the formation of blood clots
first step of blood clotting injury
second step of blood clotting platelets secrete substance that causes them to lump together and bind to collagen fibers in the surrounding connective tissue at wound site. Forms a plug
third step of blood clotting fibrin forms a meshwork that traps red blood cells and platelets forming a clot that seals the wound
system veins return blood from the body
pulmonary veins return blood from lungs
AV valves between atria and ventricles. Controls movement of blood between them
each ventricle empties into the aorta
pulmonary trunk divides into the pulmonary arteries that lead to left and right lungs
semilunar valves between each ventricle and the artery. One way valves
neurogenic heart will not beat unless it receives regular electrical impulses from nervous system
myogenic heart signaling mechanism that initiates contraction resides within cardiac muscle itself
myocyte has membrane extensions that form interlocking networks with other myocytes
intercalated disks within networks of myocytes. Gap junctions
SA node collection of modified cardiac cells that have an inherently unstable resting membrane potential
atrial contraction pumps blood through the AV valves into the ventricles
ventricular action potentials in SA node reach Av node
AV node located near junction of the atria and ventricles and conducts electrical signals from the atria to the ventricles
cardiac cycle contraction and relaxation events that produce a single heartbeat
diastole first phase. Ventricles are relaxed and fill with blood coming from the aorta through open AV valves. Atria contract and more blood fills ventricle
systole second phase. ventricles contract and eject the blood through the open semilunar valves
blood pressure force exerted by blood on the walls of blood vessels.
Blood pressure is highest in the arteries during systole
blood pressure is lowest in the arteries during diastole
EKG medical test used to investigate the function of the heart
Order of blood flow- arteris heart, large arteries, small arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, small veins, large veins, heart.
artery walls are thick
arteries distribute blood leaving heart to all of the organs and tissues of an animal's body
Resistance the tendency of blood vessels to slow down the flow of blood through their lumens
Resistance depends on vessel radius, length and blood viscosity
vasodilation increase in blood vessel radius
vasoconstriction decrease in blood vessel radius
cardiac output amount of blood the heart pumps per unit of time, usually expressed in units of liters per minute
cardiac output depends on size of heart, how often it beats per minute, and how much blood it ejects with each beat
stroke volume amount of blood ejected with each beat
binding of epinephrine to receptors on heart increases heart rate.
epinephrine released during exercise
cardiovascular disease disease of heart and blood vessels
hypertension high blood pressure
coronary artery disease when plaque forms in the coronary vessels. Symptom- angina pectoris (chest pain)
Myocardial infarction heart attack
Baroreceptors stretch receptors
Oder of blood flow body, superior/inferior vena cava, right atrium AV valves right ventricle, SV valve, pulmonary arteries, lungs, left atrium, AV valve, left ventricle, aorta, body.
Created by: Gianna B



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