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Vocab from the unit on DNA

Double Helix The shape of DNA
Adenine pairs with.... Thymine pairs with... (DNA only)
Cytosine pairs with... Guanine pairs with...
Nucleotide Building blocks of DNA/RNA Contains PHOSPHATE, SUGAR, and NITROGEN BASE
Adenine pairs with (only in RNA)... Uracil pairs with (only in RNA)...
Amino Acid Building block of proteins
James Watson and Francis Crick "Fathers of DNA" Won Nobel Prize
Maurice Wilkins Worked with Franklin to take pictures of DNA Won Nobel Prize
Rosalind Franklin Took X-Ray Diffraction Pictures of DNA Passed away before Nobel Prize
Linus Pauling In race for DNA structure American who did not win
Erwin Chargaff Came up with pairing rules that in DNA A always pairs with T G always pairs with C
What makes up the backbone/sides of DNA? Phosphate and Sugar
What makes up the rungs/steps of DNA ladder? Nitrogen Bases A, T, G, C
Differences between DNA and RNA? DNA is double stranded, RNA single strand DNA has thymine, RNA has uracil DNA has deoxyribose, RNA ribose sugar
mRNA Messenger RNA that copies gene on DNA and brings message from nucleus to ribosome
tRNA transfer RNA that brings amino acids to ribosome for protein synthesis
rRNA ribosomal RNA- substance that makes up ribosomes along with proteins
codon 3 letter sequence on mRNA that codes for amino acid
anti-codon 3 letter sequence on tRNA that matches up with codon on mRNA
ribosome the location of protein synthesis
transcription copying code on DNA to mRNA in the NUCLEUS
translation using the mRNA to code for specific protein AT the RIBOSOME
Mutation Mistake in the DNA code
What types of things can cause a mutation Mutagenic chemicals, excessive body temperature, radiation, and completely random mutations.
Point Mutation A mutation that affects one single base (letter)
Frame Shift Mutation When a base is deleted or added in and shifts how the entire gene is read
Chromosomal Inversion Mutation When an entire segment of the DNA/chromosome is flipped around
Karyotype A map of one's chromosomes Used to look for abnormalities
Selective Breeding Form of artificial selection where humans choose traits they want to see in an organism
DNA fingerprinting Form of DNA technology where specific DNA points on several organisms of the same species are mapped to look for similarities
Polymerase Chain Reaction DNA technology that makes many copies of a single gene
Human Genome Project Collaboration of many scientists worldwide to sequence the entire human DNA code Could help identify and cure diseases
Created by: Rylands



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