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Biology - Unit 8

DNA - Protein Synthesis

Scientist who found that harmless bacteria could be transformed into harmful bacteria by living in an environment containing dead harmful bacteria. Frederick Griffith
Scientists who proved that DNA was the transforming factor rather than protein. Hershey and Chase
X-ray picture taken by Rosalind Franklin that provided an important clue to the structure of DNA. Photo 51
Type of bonds between sugars and phosphates holding nucleotides together in a strand of DNA. Covalent
Type of bonds between nitrogen bases holding two strands of DNA together. Hydrogen
Rungs of the DNA ladder are composed of _____. Nitrogenous bases (base pairs)
The DNA backbone is composed of ______. Sugars and phosphates.=
During which phase of the cell cycle does DNA replication occur? In S-phase of Interphase
The enzyme that attaches complementary bases to the template strands in DNA Replication. DNA Polymerase
What is being made during Protein Synthesis? Protein
Which two cellular processes are involved in Protein Synthesis? Transcription and Translation
A pair of complementary nitrogenous bases making up the rungs of the DNA ladder Base pair
In DNA, A pairs with ______ and C pairs with ______ T; G
For DNA sequence: TAC the complementary mRNA would be AUG
In mRNA, thymine (T) is replaced by ____ uracil (U)
Protein that with DNA forms chromatin in eukaryotic cells Histone
RNA stands for Ribonucleic Acid
Where does Translation take place? on a ribosome (in the cytoplasm)
During Translation, mRNA is used to make _____________. Protein
The 3 base sequence of nucleotides on mRNA is called the _____________. codon
Amino acids are held together with by ____________ bonds. peptide
Protein Synthesis will be complete when a _________ codon is reached. stop
The scientist that used X-ray images to determine that DNA was helical (spiral) in shape. Rosalind Franklin
The two scientists that are credited with creating the first model of the double helix. James Watson & Francis Crick
DNA ---> RNA Transcription
RNA ---> Protein Translation