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APB Plants

Organs consist of several types of tissues that together carry out particular functions
Tissue a group of cells consisting of 1 or more cell types that together perform a specialized function
Nodes the points at which leaves are attached
Axillary buds the bud located in the upper angle (axil) formed by each leaf and the stem, which can potentially form a lateral branch
Dermal tissue plant's outer protective covering (tissue)
Vascular tissue is a complex conducting tissue,primarily composed of xylem and phloem
Xylem conducts water & dissolved minerals upward from roots into the shoots
Phloem Transport sugars, from where they are made to where they are needed
Ground tissue includes all tissues that are neither dermal nor vascular. It can be divided into three classes based on the nature of the cell walls: Parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma.
Parenchyma cells have thin primary walls, usually remain alive after they become mature, and form the "filler" tissue in the soft parts of plants.
Collenchyma cells have thin primary walls with some areas of secondary thickening, provide extra structural support, particularly in regions of new growth.
Sclerenchyma cells have thick lignified secondary walls, often die when mature, and provides the main structural support to a plant.
tracheids elongated cells in the xylem of vascular plants that serve in the transport of water and mineral salts.
Vessel elements one of the cell types found in xylem, the water conducting tissue of plants.
Sieve tube elements are a specialized type of elongated cell in the phloem tissue of flowering plants
Apical meristem A meristem at the tip of a plant shoot or root that produces auxin and causes the shoot or root to increase in length.
Mesophyll The primary site of photosynthesis in most leaves (palisade mesophyll) almost always occurs on the upper side of the blade or lamina of the leaf
Stomata tiny openings on plants found typically on the outer leaf skin layer, that consist of two guard cells that surround a tiny pore called a stoma
Guard cells cells surrounding each stomathat regulate the rate of transpiration by opening and closing the stomata.
Vascular cambium a plant tissue located between the xylem and the phloem in the stem and root of a vascular plant that is the source of both the secondary xylem growth (inwards) and secondary phloem growth (outwards)
Secondary growth the growth that results from cell division in the cambia that cause the stems and roots to thicken
Cork cambium is a tissue found in many vascular plants as part of the periderm and is responsible for secondary growth that replaces the epidermis in roots and stems.
Apoplast the free diffusional space outside the plasma membrane that is interrupted by the Casparian strip in roots, by air spaces between plant cells, and by the plant cuticle.
Symplast the inner side of the plasma membrane in which water can freely diffuse. The plasmodesmata allow the direct flow of small molecules such as sugars, amino acids, and ions between cells.
Turgidity is caused by the osmotic flow of water from an area of low solute concentration outside the cell into the cell's vacuole, which has a higher solute concentration. Healthy plant cells are turgid and plants rely on turgidity to maintain rigidity.
Endodermis the central, innermost layer of cortex in some land plants.
Cohesion-tension Hypothesis explains how how water is pulled up from the roots to the top of the plant. Evaporation from the mesophyll cells produces a negative water potential gradient that causes water & minerals to move upwards from the roots through the xylem.
Transpiration the process by which moisture is carried through plants from roots to small pores on the underside of leaves, where it changes to vapor and is released to the atmosphere.
Pressure-flow hypothesis explains the movement of sap through the phloem.
Abscisic acid a plant hormone that promotes leaf detachment, induces seed and bud dormancy, and inhibits germination.
Circadian rhythm cycles with approximately 24 hours
Sugar sink a plant organ that is a net consumer or depository of sugar:a storage organ such as a tuber or bulb
Etiolation is a process in flowering plants grown in partial or complete absence of light, characterized by long, weak stems; smaller leaves due to longer internodes; and a pale yellow color (chlorosis).
Blue-light photoreceptors light receptors (photoreceptors) that absorb mostly red light
Senescence the condition or process of deterioration with age
Phytochrome a photoreceptor, a pigment that plants use to detect light; sensitive to light in the red and far-red region of the visible spectrum.
Auxin a plant hormone produced in the stem tip that promotes cell elongation.
Cytokinins a class of plant growth substances (phytohormones) that promote cell division (cytokinesis) in plant roots and shoots.
Gibberellins are plant hormones that regulate growth and influence various developmental processes, including stem elongation, germination, dormancy, flowering, sex expression, enzyme induction, and leaf and fruit senescence.
Ethylene an important natural plant hormone, used in agriculture to force the ripening of fruits.
Tropism the turning of all or part of an organism in a particular direction in response to an external stimulus.
Phototropism the orientation of a plant or other organism in response to light, either toward the source of light ( positive phototropism ) or away from it ( negative phototropism ).
Photoperiodism the response of an organism to seasonal changes in day length.
Short-day plants A plant that flowers only after being exposed to light periods shorter than a certain critical length, as in early spring or fall. Chrysanthemums and strawberries are short-day plants.
Long-day plants A plant that flowers only after being exposed to light periods longer than a certain critical length, as in summer. Spinach, lettuce, and some varieties of wheat are long-day plants.
Day-neutral plants A plant that flowers regardless of the length of the period of light it is exposed to. Rice, corn, and the cucumber are day-neutral plants.
Gravitropism is a turning or growth movement by a plant in response to gravity.
Created by: 100001916589047



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