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bio test 1

microbio lecture

QuestionAnswer
MICROBIOLOGY “Study of”… “life”…. “small” individually
Primary Tool microscope
Microbiota
Microbiome Collection of microbes that live in and on the body.
Metagenome Genomes recovered from mixed environmental samples; provides information on diversity of microbe types without isolating or culturing them.
micrometer um 10^-6 m
nanometer nm 10^-9 m
Ubiquitous Microorganisms live almost everywhere on earth Many microorganisms are required partners in complex associations with animals and fungi
• Detrimental effects of microorganisms Cause infection • Cause disease
Pathogen disease causing agent
Parasite lives in or on host; robs host of nutrients
• Emerging Diseases- newly identified; reported in increasing numbers
• Reemerging Diseases – older, well-known diseases; increasing in occurrence
Zoonoses Diseases indigenous to animals transmissible to humans
TAXONOMY The science dealing with organizing, classifying, and naming of organisms.
CLASSIFICATION he assignment of organisms to groups within a system of categories distinguished by shared common characteristics such as structure, origin, etc.
Levels of Classification Dont kill Phyls class of family geniyses
oppurtunistic pathogen pathogen in the body that will not cause problems until the immune system has failed
• BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE • SCIENTIFIC NAME • PURPOSE: – uniform (universal) system of identification – cure for “common name syndrome”
LINNAEUS father of taxonomy
Genus species G. species
CRITERION A standard of judgment; a measure or yardstick for evaluating something
obligate parasite parasite must find a host and funvtion as a parasite to survive and reproduce
facultative parasite do not have to act as a parasite to reproduce
Mycobacterium lack typical cell wall structure Gram-positive cell wall structure with lipid mycolic acid (cord factor) • Basis for acid-fast stain used for diagnosis of infections caused by these microorganisms
infectous a disease causing pathogen that can be transferred
genetic disease disease passed down genetically
degenerative disease breakdown disease
communicable capable of being transferred from host to host
contagious capable of being transferred from host to host easier
PROKARYOTIC RIBOSOMES (70s) – Consist of two subunits: large(50s) and small(30s) – Prokaryotic differ from eukaryotic ribosomes in size and number of proteins – Site of protein synthesis – Found in all cells
S (Svedberg) Ribosomes characterized by molecular size of components using ultracentrifuge
INCLUSIONS Reserve deposits (intracellular storage bodies can be used when environmental supplies depleted)
CYTOSKELETON – Many bacteria possess an internal network of protein polymers that is closely associated with the cell wall
Vegetative cell – metabolically active and growing
Endospore formed when exposed to adverse environmental conditions (STRESS); capable of high resistance (PROTECTED) and very long-term survival (RESISTANT TO NORMAL CONTROL METHODS).
Sporulation formation of endospores
Germination return to vegetative growth
Endospores charecteristics • Dehydrated, metabolically inactive • Thick spore coat • Longevity verges on immortality, 250 million years • Position in vegetative cell is genetically programmed • Elimination: Pressurized steam at 120oC for 20-30 minutes will destroy (AUTOCLAVE)
Phenotypic CRITERIA for PROKARYOTES Microscopic morphology –shape, arrangement, staining 2. Macroscopic morphology – colony appearance 3. Bacterial physiology-chemical reactions 4. Serological analysis
genotypic CRITERIA for PROKARYOTES 5. Genetic and molecular analysis
Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology - five volume resource covering all known prokaryotes; 1923-1994 -based on phenotypic characteristics -volumes determined by cell wall composition -medical use (diagnostic)**
Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology based on genotypic (rRNA) characteristics – phylogenetic system (evolutionary relationships)
Domain Archaea primitive, adapted to extreme habitats and modes of nutrition
Phylum Proteobacteria – Gram-negative cell walls
Phylum Firmicutes – mainly Gram-positive with low G+c
Phylum Actinobacteria Gram-positive with high G + C content
Rickettsias • Very tiny, gram-negative bacteria • Rod shaped • Most are pathogens • Obligate intracellular pathogens * • Transmitted by arthropod vectors • Family Rickettsiaceae
Rickettsia rickettisii Rocky Mountain spotted fever (tick
Rickettsia prowazekii Epidemic Typhus (louse/pediculouse)
Chlamydias Tiny • Coccoid • Obligate intracellular parasites* • Not transmitted by arthropods • Transmitted by air or contact (including sexual) • Family Chlamydiaceae (2 genera)
Chlamydia trachomatis can cause urogenital infections, trachoma, conjunctivitis, pneumonia and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)
Chlamydophila pneumoniae can cause bronchitis, sinusitis, pneumonia and possibly atherosclerosis
Chlamydophila psittaci can cause pneumonia (psittacosis).
extremophiles Live in the most extreme habitats in nature
Acidophiles Adapted to extreme acid pH
Halophiles Adapted to extreme salt concentration
Thermophiles Adapted to extreme temperatures
• Endosymbiotic Theory (Lynn Margulis) Eukaryotic cells resulted from one prokaryotic cell engulfing another prokaryotic cel
• Endosymbiotic Theory (Lynn Margulis) evidence – Some eukaryotic organelles resemble prokaryotic cells • Mitochondria & chloroplasts are rod-shaped, measured in ums, have 70S ribosomes, have own DNA that is similar to prokaryotic DNA
Flagellum • Locomotor appendages: • Long, sheathed cylinder containing microtubules in a 9+2 arrangement • Composed of protein tubulin • 10x thicker than prokaryotic flagella • Function in motility
Cilia • Locomotor appendages: • Similar in overall structure to flagella, but shorter and more numerous • Found only on a single group of protozoa* and certain animal cells • Function in motility, feeding, and filtering
Glycocalyx An outermost boundary that comes into direct contact with environment – Usually composed of polysaccharides – Appears as a network of fibers, either a slime layer or a capsule
Glycocalyx– Significant functions • Adherence (attachment) • Protection from toxic chemicals • Prevents desiccation • Functions in signal reception
Cell wall – Rigid, provides structural support and shape
Fungi Cell wall have thick inner layer of polysaccharide fibers composed of chitin
Algae Cell wall varies in chemical composition; may be cellulose, pectin, mannans, silicon dioxide, and calcium carbonate
Animals Cell wall – no cell wall
Nucleus – Control center of the eukaryotic cell – Envelope composed of two parallel membranes separated by a narrow space; perforated with pores – Contains species specific number of chromosomes
Nucleolus – dark area for rRNA synthesis and ribosome assembly
Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) • originates from the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope • extends in a continuous network through cytoplasm; • proteins synthesized on ribosomes; • shunted into the ER for packaging and transport; first step in secretory pathway
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) • closed tubular network without ribosomes; • functions in nutrient processing, synthesis, and storage of lipids
Golgi apparatus – Modifies, stores, and packages proteins – Secretes vesicles
Mitochondria – Function in energy production – Outer membrane and an inner membrane with folds called cristae – Cristae hold the enzymes and electron carriers of aerobic respiration – Divide independently of cell – Contain DNA and 70S prokaryotic ribosomes
Chloroplast – Convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy through photosynthesis – Found in algae and plant cells – Outer membrane covers inner membrane folded into sacs, thylakoids, stacked into grana
Ribosomes eukaryotic – 80S – Composed of rRNA and proteins – Scattered in cytoplasm or associated with RER – Function in protein synthesis
FUNGI • Eukaryotic cells • Single or multicellular • Heterotrophic • Mycology • Mycotoxins (produced by pathogenic fungi) • Facultative parasites • Saprophytes (Saprobes)
fungi NUTRITION send out exoenzymes to break down material; absorb digested material
fungi CELL WALL Chitin
fungi MEMBRANE Ergosterol
DIMORPHISM ability to alter structure when changing environments
MYCELIUM MASS OF HYPHAE (Body)
HYPHAE FUNGAL FILAMENTS*
SEPTATE SEPARATED BY WALLS
COENOCYTIC/aseptate NO WALL
fungi REPRODUCTION: – ASEXUAL – SEXUAl
Yeast – soft, uniform texture and appearance – Reproduce through an asexual process called budding
Vegetative hyphae digest and absorb nutrients
Reproductive hyphae produce spores for reproduction
fungi Sexual reproduction spores are formed following fusion of two different strains and formation of a sexual structure – Zygospores, ascospores, and basidiospores
fungi Sexual spores and spore-forming structures are used for identification AND are the usual basis for classificatio
fungi aSexual reproduction spores are formed through budding or mitosis; two subtypes of asexual spores: conidia and sporangiospores
fungi aSexual spores are used for identification
Phylum Zygomycota zygospores; mostly sporangiospores and some conidia
2. Phylum Ascomycota ascospores; conidia
3. Phylum Basidiomycota basidiospores; conidia
4. Phylum Chytridomycota – flagellated spores
Deuteromycota unknown
Adverse impact of fungi – Mycoses – fungal infections – Allergies- fungal cell wall substances trigger reactions – Toxin production- aflatoxin, ergot toxin; neurological effects – Destruction of crops and food storages
Beneficial impact of fungi – Decomposers of dead plants and animals – Aid in digestion in guts of herbivores – Sources of antibiotics, alcohol, organic acids, vitamins – Used in making foods – Used in genetic studies (Recombivax)
PROTISTS • EUKARYOTIC CELLS • Most UNICELLULAR (SOMETIMES COLONIAL) Some MULTICELLULAR • MOST MICROSCOPIC (5um TO 5mm); some macroscopic • MOSTLY AQUATIC; SOME MARINE; SOME MOIST SOIL; SOME PATHOGENS OF HUMANS • SURVIVAL MECHANISM: CYST
Algae PLANT LIKE PROTISTS
Slime Molds FUNGUS LIKE PROTISTS
Protozoa ANIMAL LIKE PROTISTS:
Algae charecteristics • Photosynthetic organisms • Microscopic forms are unicellular, colonial, filamentous • Macroscopic forms are colonial and multicellular • Contain chloroplasts with chlorophyll a and other pigments • Cell wall (composition varies
Algae charecteristics 2 most are plankton Provide basis of food web in most aquatic habitats • Produce large proportion of atmospheric O2 • Most are non pathogenic • Dinoflagellates can cause red tides and give off toxins that cause food poisoning with neurological symptoms
plankton Most are free-living in fresh and marine water
Gelidium marine red algae used to make agar
Alexandrium • Dinoflagellate • Produces saxitoxin (neurotoxin) • Causes PSP paralytic shellfish poisoning
Gambierdiscus • Dinoflagellate • Produces cigua toxin in game fish like grouper & red snapper • Causes disease ciguatera • Toxin not inactivated by cooking
Pfiesteria • DINOFLAGELLATE • 2 TOXINS: 1 WATERBORNE, 1 AIRBORNE » Toxin attacks immune system, higher level brain function • Life cycle: -during winter, algae eater (amoeboid shape); kleptochloroplasts - increased run off leads to increased fis
PROTOZOA • CHEMOHETEROTOPHIC; lack chloroplasts • UNICELLULAR; rarely colonial • Most are harmless, free-living in a moist habitat (aquatic, damp soil) • Some are animal parasites (human tissue habitat) and can be spread by insect vectors
CYST (protected structure; contains larval stage)
VEGETATIVE FORM TROPHOZOITE
DEFINITIVE HOST : final host; harbors the adult
INTERMEDIATE HOST secondary host; harbors a larval or intermediate form of parasite
INFECTIVE FORM (egg, larva, cyst, trophozoite)
DIAGNOSTIC form (present in stool, migrates out of body)
MECHANICAL VECTOR (Passive)
BIOLOGICAL VECTOR (Active)
Mastigophora primarily flagellar motility, some flagellar and amoeboid; sexual reproduction
Sarcodina primarily amoeba; asexual by fission; most are free- living; move by pseudopods
Ciliophora cilia; trophozoites and cysts; most are free-living, harmles
Apicomplexa motility is absent except male gametes; sexual and asexual reproduction; complex life cycle – all parasitic
Entamoeba histolytica amoebic dysentery; worldwid
Trypanosoma brucei – causes African Trypanosomiasis or African Sleeping Sickness – vector: Glossina (Tsetse Fly) – Central Nervous System Disease (coma)
Trypanosoma cruzi – causes American Trypanosomiasis or Chagas’ Disease – Vector: Triatoma infestans (Kissing Bug) – Cardiovascular Disease
Trypanosoma brucei brucei • Equines, pigs, cattle, rodents
Trypanosoma brucei gambiense • HUMANS, monkeys, dogs, pigs, antelopes • West and Central Africa
Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense • HUMANS, wild game, pigs, rats (experiments) • East and Central Africa
HELMINTHS • Eukaryotic • Multicellular Animals • Phylum Platyhelminthes – Flat Worms • Phylum Nematoda – Round Worms
PHYLUM PLATYHELMNTHES • Flat worms; no body cavity • Incomplete digestive system • Mostly monoecious (hermaphroditic) • Greatly reduced systems except reproductive • Very efficient reproductive system (eggs and sperm)
PHYLUM PLATYHELMNTHES ClassTurbellaria : free living
PHYLUM PLATYHELMNTHES Class Cestode : tapeworms
PHYLUM PLATYHELMNTHES Class Trematode flukes
CESTODES (TAPEWORMS) STRUCTURE : scolex, proglottids
CESTODES (TAPEWORMS) SCOLEX : has hooks and/or suckers
CESTODES (TAPEWORMS) PROGLOTTIDS body segments • Both male and female organs in each proglottid: hermaphroditic aka monoecious • Newest segments near the head • Older segments come out with feces
PHYLUM NEMATODA OUNDWORMS NONSEGMENTED REPRODUCTION: dioecious; sexual & internal SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC HABITATS: marine, freshwater, damp soil, moist plant tissues, animal tissues SIZE: less than 1 mm to more than a meter (blunt at anterior end; tip at posterior)
Mycology study of fungi`
phycology study of algae
protozoology study of protozae
epidemiology study of the spread of disease
etiology cause of disease
chemotherapy treating disease with chemicals
Robert Hooke coined the term cell
Antoine Van Leeuwenhoek first observed microorganisms with microscope his microscope
sponaneous generation/abiogenisis living things come from non living things
Redi's experiment proved spontaneous generation was wrong
edward jenner pioneered the small pox vaccine
Semmelweis connected infections to medical personnel coming from the autopsy room and maternity ward. forced nurses to wash hands
Joseph Lister Used aseptic technique in surgery to prevent infection
germ theory of disease diseases are caused by the growth of the microbes in the body
Louis Pasteur Disproved sponateous genereation to the public and announced that germs caused diseases. proved microbes are everywhere and cant negotiate curves. researcher who gets credit for initiating aseptic technique in the laboratory.
biogenises living things can only come from living things
koch koch's postulate-a sequence of steps that verified the germ theor
angelina fannie used agar to grow bacteria
hans christian gram divided bacteria into two possible groups based on cell composition
how does a spirochete move moves by means of axio filaments
ehrlich father of chemotherapy who discovered the synthetic arsenic derivative Salvarsan that was an effective treatment for syphillis
golden age of microbiology microbiology was considered a science, new microcopes
alexander fleming discovered antimicrobial ability of a chemical substance of mold
Chain and Florey developed penicilium
Margulis proved evolution through phagocytosis
prusiner showed prions caused mad cow disease
woese rRna sequencing
strain member of the same genus and species that have mutated to be significantly different than other members of the species.
basic stain COLOR IS IN THE POSITIVE ION
acidic stain color is in the negative ion
Created by: Virajasaur