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Unit 3 AP Biology


Synapsis occurs during ____ but not during ______ Meiosis, Mitosis What is indicated when a single-character testcross yields offspring in a 1:1 phenotypic ratio The parent with the dominant phenotype was heterozygous What are Linked loci Loci on the same chromosome What is the exchange of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes Translocation
What is the phenomenon during meiosis, where homologous chromosomes sometimes stick together and do not separate properly Nondisjunction Both chloroplasts and mitochondria carry Extranuclear genes Y-linked genes are passed from who to who From father to son Cells that have more than two complete sets of chromosomes are termed___________. Polyploid
What is the normal complement of sex chromosomes in a human male One X chromosome and one Y chromosome Who demonstrated that genes are located on chromosomes Morgan A harmless variant of S. pneumoniae became pathogenic when mixed with a heat-killed pathogenic variant as a result of _____. Transformation The X-ray diffraction studies conducted by ______ were key to the discovery of the structure of DNA Franklin
In excision repair of DNA, damaged DNA is excised by _____. Nuclease Repetitive DNA sequences at the ends of chromosomes are called Telomeres What is an enzyme made up of a protein and an RNA sequence that serves as a template for telomeric sequence addition Telomerase What is a difference between a DNA and an RNA molecule DNA is double-stranded, whereas RNA is single-stranded
What is not needed for DNA replication Ribosome An old DNA strand is used as a _____ for the assembly of a new DNA strand Template The synthesis of a new strand begins with the synthesis of a RNA primer complementary to a preexisting DNA strand What are the four bases contained in DNA Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine
One strand of a DNA molecule has the base sequence ATAGGT. The complementary base sequence on the other strand of DNA will be _____ TATCCA In a eukaryotic cell, what does DNA contain Sugar Deoxyribose The DNA structures of prokaryotes and eukaryotes are different in several ways, but one way in which these two DNAs are the same is that _____ Both have a sugar-phosphate backbone What is the weakest bonds in DNA Two nitrogenous bases
What term describes a rare change in the DNA of a gene ultimately creating genetic diversity Mutation The flow of information in a cell proceeds From DNA to RNA to protein The order of the nucleotides in the molecule What process occurs in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell Translation
A mutagen causes Change in the base sequence of DNA A gene is usually _____ The information for making a polypeptide How many nucleotides are needed to code for a protein with 450 amino acids at least 1,350 Where does transcription take place in a eukaryotic cell Nucleus
What catalyzes the linkage between ribonucleotides to form RNA RNA polymerase What is a point mutation where a single base pair is inserted or deleted from DNA Frame-shift mutation In eukaryotes, which mechanism of gene regulation operates after transcription but before translation of mRNA into protein RNA splicing and editing Polysomes may be defined as what Functional groups of ribosomes
Why is Ultraviolet (UV) radiation damaging It causes mutations in the DNA What are the bonds that hold tRNA molecules in the correct three-dimensional shape Hydrogen bonds What does Amino acid activation involve Attachment to tRNA The nucleic acid of a virus particle is enclosed in a protein coat known as Capsid
What is a virus called that attacks a bacterium Phage Describe the general mode of action of a virus The viral genome takes over the host cell's central dogma machinery ______ are naked strands of RNA and ______ are infectious protein particles Viroids and prions A correct sequence of DNA segments composing an operon is _____. Promoter, Operator, Enzyme-coding genes
As a result of the lytic cycle, _____ the host cells DNA is destroyed What is the function of reverse transcriptase Catalyzes the formation of DNA from an RNA template What is the source of a viral envelope Host cell membrane Double-stranded viral DNA is incorporated into a host cell as a _____ Provirus
Regulatory proteins bind to _____ The operator In the presence of a regulatory protein the lac operon is _____ Not transcribed What are viruses called that infect bacteria Bacteriophages What term is associated with a viral genome that has been incorporated into a bacterial cell's chromosome Prophage
In the lytic life cycle of phages what enters the host cell Nucleic acid core of the phage What is a phage that inserts itself into the host DNA called Lysogenic What occurs in the lytic cycles of a DNA virus and an RNA retrovirus Production of DNA Reverse transcription, carried out by retroviruses, is the process by which _____. RNA information is copied into DNA
DNA segments very similar to real genes but which do not yield functional products are called Pseudogenes What are Histones Proteins around which DNA is coiled What is the difference between tandemly repetitive and interspersed repetitive DNA Interspersed repetitive DNA is found throughout the genome What are the simplest bacterial transposons Insertion sequences
Why are your muscle and bone cells different Different genes are switched on and off in each type of cell DNA methylation is a mechanism used by eukaryotes to _____. Inactivate genes Rearrangement of the genome plays an important role in the _____ system Immune _____ bind to DNA enhancer regions Activators
Enzyme complexes that break down protein are called _____ Proteasomes What is the function of a spliceosome RNA processing During Interphase, _____ can be seen with a light microscope Heterochromatin Segments of eukaryotic DNA that are able to move from one site to another in the genome are called Transposons
In plants, the structures that develop from meristems depend on the expression of ______ genes Organ-identity What is programmed cell death Apoptosis In C. elegans the gene that initiates the cascade that results in apoptosis is the __________ gene Ced-9 What is the highly conserved segment of homeotic genes Homeobox
Cytoplasmic determinants are coded for by maternal genes True Cells influence each other's development by a process known as __________. Induction What has the earliest influence on development Cytoplasmic determinants Differentiation __________. Requires the transcription of tissue-specific genes
Embryonic tissue that persists in the adult plant is called __________ Meristem What is Electrophoresis used for To separate fragments of DNA What is Southern blotting A technique used to study RFLPs What is an enzyme called that makes DNA from an RNA template Reverse transcriptase
What is the source of the reverse transcriptase used in recombinant DNA technology Retroviruses DNA synthesized using an RNA template is called cDNA The so-called sticky ends of a plasmid or bacterial chromosome are ____________ Unpaired bases produced by a restriction enzyme Why does bacteria use restriction enzymes Destroy foreign DNA
In eukaryotes, the structures consisting of associations of Histones and DNA are called Nucleosomes What are the active genes associated with the loosely packed chromatin Euchromatin What is the name of the technology for combining genes from different species Recombinant DNA technology In what ways are sticky ends and nucleic acid probes alike They both undergo complementary base pairing
What can be used to find a particular nucleotide sequence within a mass of DNA Nucleic acid probe The term used for the fact that restriction enzymes cut DNA into pieces of different lengths RFLP The unpaired nucleotides produced by the action of restriction enzymes are referred to as _____. Sticky ends In order to insert a human gene into a plasmid, both must _____ Be cut by the same restriction enzyme
What enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments DNA Ligase What is a symptom of vitamin A deficiency Blindness Name a vitamin A precursor Beta-carotene DNA used in recombinant DNA techniques is first cut into fragments by Restriction enzymes
The process by which cells become specialized is called Diffusion True or False Haploid cells can divide by meiosis False By what process can fetal cells may be removed along with fluid from the womb Amniocentesis Which of the following is correct with regard to aneuploidy It can be represented by 2n + 1
A two-stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the chromosome number of the original cell is called Meiosis Nuclear division resulting in cells that contain half the parental chromosome number is _____. Meiosis A man who has type B blood and a woman who has type A blood could have children of which of the following phenotypes A, B, AB, or O The phenomenon where a particular allele can have different effects if it is inherited from a male rather than a female Genomic imprinting
What produces offspring genetically identical to the parent Asexual reproduction A photograph of all a persons chromosomes is called Karyotype What is the gene interaction called when one gene pair will interact to control the expression of a second gene pair Epistasis Human mitochondria is inherited from who Inherited from the mother
A human somatic cell contains how many chromosomes 46 What is the division of one cell into two Cytokinesis A woman with type O blood is expecting a child. Her husband is type A. Both the woman's father and her husband's father had type B blood. What is the probability that the child will have type O blood 50 percent If two genes are linked _____. They are on the same chromosome
What is the diploid stage of a plant that exhibits an alternation of generations Sporophyte What is the term for an alternative version of a gene Allele The general term for the production of offspring with new combinations of traits inherited from the two parents is Genetic recombination What is the term that describes the order of genes on a chromosome based on recombination frequencies Linkage map
When does replication of all the chromosomal DNA occur Before a cell divides Individuals have different phenotypes because the underlying genotypes contain instructions for different sets of _____ Polypeptides The most common phenotype in a natural population is referred to as the _____ Wild Type The Y chromosomes of mammals contain genes that code for whatMaleness The Y chromosomes of mammals contain genes that code for whatMaleness Maleness
Created by: kendrag