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control. micr. grow

controlling microbial growth

TermDefinition
Principles of controlling microbial growth 1. Microorganisms have specific requirements 2. Certain structures and/or processes are essential 3. Any control strategy has to be tailored 4. Not all control methods are equally effective 5. Not all microorganisms are equally susceptible
UV-rays sterilisation 1. UV range: 50-400 nm wavelength 2. Absorbed by purine & pyramidine bases: forms pyramidine dimers 3. Doesn’t penetrate well: limited to surface sterilization 4. Uses: Sterilize some foods E.g., nuts and spices.
Ionizing Dislodges electrons from atoms Damages DNA and produces peroxides
Disinfectants 1. Quaternary ammonium compound 2. Halogens (iodine, chlorine) 3. Peroxides 4. Alcohols
Function of antibiotics: Chloramphenicol, Streptomycin, Tetracyline, Macrolides. Protein synthesis inhibition
Antibiotics targeting protein synthesis inhibition Chloramphenicol, Streptomycin, Tetracyline, Macrolides.
Selective toxicity Antibiotics that kill microbial cells but not the host's cells.
Has stationary number of total cells and low number of viable cells bactericidal compound
bactericidal compound Has stationary number of total cells and low number of viable cells
Has a low total cell count and a low viable cell count Bacteriolytic compound
Key features of Antiseptics 1. How effective it is depends on: antimicrobial activity and toxicity to living tissues. 2. ability to remove microbes before injection 3. ability to reduce numbers of microbes before cut or surgery
Dilution test ring dipped in colony --> ring washed with disinfectant --> ring washed with water --> ring put in nutrient broth --> effectiveness of disinfectant based on growth in broth.
ring dipped in colony --> ring washed with disinfectant --> ring washed with water --> ring put in nutrient broth --> effectiveness of disinfectant based on growth in broth. Dilution test
Therapeutic antimicrobials General term that is used to refer to natural and synthetic compounds with activity against microorganisms, that can be used therapeutically.
General term that is used to refer to natural and synthetic compounds with activity against microorganisms, that can be used therapeutically. Therapeutic antimicrobials
Inhibitors of Reverse Transcriptase Zidovudine (AZT) and Stavudine
Mechanisms of Zidovudine (AZT) and Stavudine NUCLEOSIDE ANALOG: Activated (phosphorylated) inside the infected cell and Inhibit the viral polymerase (reverse transcriptase)
Inhbitors of petidigylcan syntehsis Beta lactam antibiotics: Penicillin and Cephalosporins
Mechanism of Beta lactam antibiotics: Penicillin and Cephalosporins Blockage of synthesis of cross linkage in the peptidoglycan layers. Binds to the enzymes (transpeptidases) responsible for the cross-linking.
Main targets for antibacterial action 1. Protein synthesis 2. Metabolism 3. Cell wall 4. Cell membrane function 5. Nucleic acid synthesis
Ergosterol A steroid alcohol present in fungal cell membrane (responsible for stiffening the cell membrane)
Created by: 1127014594018074
 

 



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