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Biology Ch. 11

Gene Expression

genome The complete genetic material contained in an individual
gene expression the activation of a gene that results in transcription and the production of mRNA
structural genes DNA segment of genes that code for polypeptides
promoter DNA segment that is recognized by RNA polymerase to initiate transcription
operator DNA segment that controls the access of RNA polymerase to move along the structural genes
operon series of genes that controls the products and the regulatory enzymes of the genes
repressor protein that inhibits genes from being expressed when attached to the operator
inducer a molecule that binds to the repressor, releasing it from the operator and allowing transcription to begin
lac operon operon where lactose is used as the inducer
euchromatin uncoiled sections of DNA that allows transcription
introns are transcribed but not translated, get cut out
exons are used for coding-- both transcribed and translated
pre-mRNA form of mRNA that has both introns and exons
snurp cut out introns to make mRNA
homeobox DNA sequence that codes for proteins to regulate patterns of development
regulator regulate cell growth and division
proto-oncogenes regulate cell growth, division, and adherence of cells to others
tumor-suppressors keep cell division from occurring too often
carcinogen substance that can cause cancer
mutagen causes mutations in cells
carcinomas tumors in the skin and body organs
sarcomas tumors in bone and muscle
lymphomas tumors in the lymphatic system
leukemia tumors in blood-forming tissues
Created by: alicemb00