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Microbiology I

QuestionAnswer
Robert Hooke 1665 Describe microorganisms, coined term cells
Leeuwenhoek 1684 Describe bacterial cells "wee animalcules"
Cohn 1876 Scientific journal of bacteriology, bacteriological practices, classification scheme, defined bacteria, life cycle of endospore Bacillus
Pasteur 1850s Lactic acid fermentation, disprove spontaneous generation, vaccines
Koch 1881 Pure culture, etiological agents of disease, TB
Beijerinck 1900 Microbial selection, viruses, identified aerobic nitrogen fixers, sulfate reducers, sulfate oxidizers, symbiotic nitrogen fixers
Winogradsky Chemolithotrophy, species
Basic Biological Science Foundation for understanding many processes of physiology, ecology, and genetics
Applied Biological Science Help solve many problems relating to health, agriculture, and industry
Six Characteristics of Cellular Life Metabolism, Reproduction, Differentiation, Communication, Movement, Evolution
All cells carry out or have the potential to carry out: Metabolism
Koch's Postulates 1. The pathogenic organism should be present in all cases of the disease and absent from the healthy 2. Organism grown in pure culture 3. Pure culture cells cause disease in healthy animal 4. Organism reisolated and shown to be the same as the original
Enrichment Culture AKA microbial selection, set up growth condition so that only the microorganisms you want to grow will
Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes Prokaryotes: haploid, palsmid, nucleoid Eukaryotes: diploid, nucleus, much more complex
Plasmid Extrachromosomal genetic elements non-essential for growth, genes for non- vital functions
Essential Components of Virus (2) 1. Nucleic acid (DNA or RNA, ds or ss) 2. Protein coat (capsid) surrounding outside
Virus membranes are derived from what? Envelope is made up of membrane from the host
Naked vs. Enveloped Viruses Naked: virus containing only the bare minimum, nucleic acid and surrounding capsid Enveloped: naked virus with surrounding envelope
Tree of Life is based on similarities in sequences of rRNA
Cyanobacteria and chloroplast carry out: Photosynthesis
Endosymbiosis Early eukaryotes lack mitochondrion, mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own genetic code
Bacteria vs Archaea Bacteria: no transcription factors, muramic acid in cell wall, ester linked Archaea: transcription factors, ether linked
Chemoorganotrophs Energy from organic molecules
Chemolithotrophs Energy from inorganic molecules
Phototrophs Energy from the sun
Heterotrophs Carbon from organic compounds
Autotrophs Carbon from CO2
Auxotrophs Cannot produce the nutrient themselves
Prototrophs Can make its own nutrient
Six Bacteria Organisms 1. Proteobacteria: large, gram-negative 2. Gram-positive Bacteria: endospore formers Bacillus and Clostridium 3. Cyanobacteria: oxygenic phototrophs 4. Planctomycetes: stalked bacteria 5. Spirochetes: long, thin, spiral-shaped 6. Deinoccoci: highly r
Three Archaea Organisms 1. Pyrolobus: extreme heat 2. Halobacteria: salt lover 3. Thermoplasm: low pH, no cell wall
Six Eukarya Organisms Diplomonads, trichomonads: lack mitochondria Algae: 1 producers, cell wall, phototrophic Fungi: unicellular (yeast), filamentous (molds), chitin Protozoa: no cell wall, motile Lichen: fungi + phototropic cell symbiosis
Thermophiles Cluster around the universal ancestor on the tree of life because there were very high temperatures during that time period
Strong and Weak Chemical bonds Covalent = strong Hbond, ionic, van der Waals, hydrophobic interactions = weak
Water as the Biological Solvent Polar: dissolution of polar substrates and products for cell transport, aggregation of large molecules Cohesive: high surface tension, specific heat
Nucleic Acids Nucleotide: C5 carbohydrate + nitrogenous base + phosphate Nucleoside: C5 carbohydrate + nitrogenous base Ribose = OH at 2C, Deoxyribose = H at 2C
Proteins AA = H group + amino group + carboxylic acid group + R group Peptide bond = covalent linkage of amino acids
Polysaccharides C4-C7 in size, glycosidic bonds Starch: A14 bonds Glycogen: A16 bonds and A14 bonds Cellulose: B14 bonds
LIpids Amphipathic Simple: triglycerides, FA linked to glycerol via ESTER linkage Complex: phosphatidyl ethanolamine
Pyrimidine vs Purine Pyrimidine: CTU Purine: AG
Chiral Carbon with D+L Forms Chiral carbon has isomers around that carbon D forms with sugars, L forms with amino acids
Amino Acids Structurally Similar and Different Amino acids have same general structure but vary in R groups giving protein its chemical properties
Protein Structure 1: linear polypeptide chain 2: H bonding (A helices near H bonds vs B sheets far H bonds) 3. folded structure of protein 4. multiple polypeptides
Protein Denaturation At levesl 2,3,4 by chemical or physical
Cell Morphologies Coccus: spherical Rod/bacillus: cylindrical Spirillum: lightly twisted rods Spirochete: tightly coiled Appendaged: contain a stalk Filamentous: long chains of cells
Small Cell Size Transfer of nutrients and waste, rapid growth, accelerated evolution Larger SA to V ratio
Resolution The closest two points can be while still being able to distinguish between them
Peptidoglycan (building blocks and linkages) N-acetylglucosamine N-Acetylmuramic acid
Enzyme that breaks B14 linkages of cell walls Lysosozyme
Protoplast Made by cell wall lysis in isotonic solution, lysozyme eats cell wall and then protoplast with no cell wall is left
Bacteria Cell Walls Peptidoglycan with B14 glycosidic linkages, susceptible to lysozyme, extra amino group that makes peptide bonds with carboxylic acid group on another molecule
Archea Cell Walls Pseudopeptidoglycan with acetyltalosaminuronic acid, B13 glycosidic linkages, NOT susceptible to lysozyme
Bacteria Membranes Ester linkages, fatty acid hydrophobic region
Archea Membranes Ether linkages, phytanyl hydrophobic region
Transport Proteins Help stuff with low concentration on the outside to come across to the inside
Cytoplasmic Membrane Functions (3) 1. Permeability Barrier: prevents leakages, gate for transport 2. Protein Anchor: site of proteins involved in transport, bioenergetics, chemotaxis 3. Energy Conservation: generation and use of proton motive force
Simple Transporters (3) Uniporter, antiporter, symporter driven by diffusion gradient
Group Translocation Chemical modification of the transported substance driven by phosphenylpyruvate - a lot of players allow for diversity of regulation
ABC Transport System Periplasmic binding proteins are involved and energy comes from ATP - allows for transport of things in low concentration
Energy Source of Membrane Transport Simple: diffusion gradient Group: phosphenylpyruvate ABC: ATP
Transport of Nutrients in Low Concentration ABC
Protein Export Translocases such as SecYEG inserted into cytoplasmic memebrane
Periplasm Space between membranes and peptidoglycan - only in gram-negative
Porins Allow for permeability across the outer membrane, create channels that traverse the membrane - gram negative
Endospore Genus (2) Bacillus and Clostridium
Hyperthermophile High temperature, pyrolovus fumarii, archaea
Psychrophile Low temperature, polaromonas vacuolata, bacteria
Acidophile Low pH, picrophilus oshimae, archaea
Alkaliphile High pH, natronobacterium gregoryi, archaea
Barophile Extreme pressure, moritella yayanosii, bacteria
Halophile Extreme salt, halobacterium salinarum, archaea
Bright Field Sufficient contrast between background and sample, cells must be stained, live cells with wet mounts
Fluorescence Staining Emit light of characteristic wavelength when excited, natural or stained
Phase-contrast Poor contrast but different refractive indices, phase differences into contrast differences, some dark some light parts, cells NOT stained
Darkfield Only light is that reflected by sample, improved resolution, disk prevents direct path of light
Differential Interference Contrast Light split by prism, pass through sample, brought together by prism, image from interference product of combined beams, 3D image
Atomic Force Microscopy Not light, no lens, image by laser scanning specimen, cells NOT fixed and can be wet, 3D image
Confocal Scanning Laser Light/fluorescence, samples fluoresce to produce image, can be stacked for 3D view, only parts in focus will reflect light back to eye
Transmission Electron Electromagnets, INTERNAL DETAIL, samples fixed, thin sections
Scanning Electron SURFACES ONLY, electron dense film coating, electrons bounce off to form image
Gram Positive vs Gram Negative +: thick cell wall, purple -: thin cell wall, outer membrane, pink
Created by: 1138967652782105