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Genetics

All the vocabulary for the Genetics Unit

Question/TermAnswer/Definition
Heredity The inheritance of traits from parents to offspring
Genotype An organism's GENES (letters) EE, Ee, ee
Phenotype An organism's PHYSICAL appearance (observable traits) Eye color, hair color, stem length
Gene A code in an organism's DNA that codes for a specific trait
Allele Alternative forms of the same gene ( ex: B=brown eyes, b=blue eyes)
Homozygous Two of the same allele (BB or bb)
Heterozygous Two different alleles (Bb)
Dominant Alleles/genes that overpower or mask the effect of a recessive allele
Recessive Alleles that are hidden when a dominant allele is present. The only way to observe the this is when both alleles are recessive (bb)
Gregor Mendel The "Father of Genetics." He experimented on pea plants.
Theory of Dominance Dominant genes mask recessive genes. The only way to see recessive genes is to have only recessive genes.
Theory of Segregation There are 2 copies of each gene. In meiosis, each gene in a pair separate so that each sex cell has half the DNA.
Incomplete Dominance Complex genetics where each each gene is not completely dominant over the other. When both alleles are present you get a BLEND. Red flowers crossed with White makes PINK
Codominance Complex genetics where each gene is equally dominant over the other. When both alleles are present you SEE BOTH traits. Black chicken crossed with White makes a black and white chicken.
Sex-Linked Traits These genes are located on the sex chromosomes, usually on the X chromosome. Color-blindness and baldness are sex-linked traits.
Pedigree A family-tree that shows how genetic traits are passed down from one generation to the next. Squares=males, Circles=females, shaded in=disorder/trait
Blood Types Co-dominance where A is codominant to B, and O is recessive
Mutation A mistake in the DNA genetic code.
Karyotype A map of someone's chromosomes
Carrier A person who appears normal, but carries a recessive allele that they could pass to their offspring. Aa= Shows dominant trait, carries recessive allele XbX= Non-bald female, carries the baldness gene
Created by: Rylands