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A&P Ch 3

Structure and Function of Some Major Cell Parts

TermStructure and Function
Plasma Membrane Structure - Phospholipid bilayer studden with proteins Function - Serves as the boundary of the cell; protein and carbohydrate molecules on the outer surface perform various functions.
Ribosomes Structure - Tiny particles, each made up of rRNA subunits Function - Synthesize proteins; a cell's "protein factory"
Endoplasmic Reticulum Structure - Rough ER receives and transports reticulum synthesized proteins (from ribosomes); smooth ER synthesizes lipids and certain carbohydrates
Golgi Apparatus Structure - Stack of flattened, membranous sacs Function - Chemically processes, then packages substances from the ER
Mitochondria Structure - Membranous capsules containing a large, folded internal membrane encrusted with enzymes Function - ATP synthesis; a cell's "power plants"
Lysosome Structure - "Bubble" of hydrolysis enzymes encased by membrane Function - A cell's digestive bad; it breaks apart large molecules
Centrosome Structure - Area near nucleus without a visible boundary; contains centrioles Function - Organizes microtubules of the cytoskeleton
Centrioles Structure - Pair of hollow cylinders, each made up of tiny tubules within the centrosome Function - Help organize and move chromosomes during cell reproduction
Microvilli Structure - Tiny cell surface extensions supported by an internal cylinder made of microtubules Function - Increase surface area of plasma membrane for efficiency of absorption
Cilia Structure- Hairlike cell surface extensions supported by an internal cylinder made of microtubules Function - Sensory antennae to detect conditions outside the cell; some cilia also move substances over surface of the cell
Flagellum Structure - Long whiplike projection on the sperm Function - The only example in humans is the tail of a sperm cell, propelling the sperm through fluids
Nucleus Structure - Double membraned, spherical envelope containing DNA strands Function - Contains DNA, which dictates protein synthesis, thereby playing an essential role in other cell activities such as transport, metabolism, growth, and heredity
Nucleolus Structure - Dense region of the nucleus Function - Makes subunits that form ribosomes
Created by: califout7