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YR ch 22 respiratory

Anatomy and Physiology 2 Bio 106 UCC

What is external nose, nasal cavity, the pharynx? Upper respiratory tract.
What is the larynx,trachea,bronchi, lungs? Lower respiratory tract
Nasal septum Divides the nasal cavity into right and left parts.
Hard palate Separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity.
Oral cavity Air enters the body but it's considered digestive and not respiratory.
Conchae Bony ridges on the walls of the nasal cavity that increase surface area and cleanse incoming air. Effective in dry and cold climates.
Pharynx (throat) common passageway for both respiratory and digestive system. Leads to respiratory system through the larynx. Leads to the digestive system through esophagus.
What type of cells makes up the pharynx? Pseudo-stratified , stratified squamous
What are the 3 parts of the pharynx? nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
Nasopharynx 1st part of pharynx; has soft palate and pharyngeal tonsils. Soft palate: separates nasopharynx from oropharynx. Prevents food from oral cavity from going into nasopharynx.
thyroid cartilage located superiorly to the hyoid bone and helps form the Adam's apple.
Cricoid cartilage second unpaired cartilage ring that forms the base of the larynx.
Epiglottis Covers the larynx to prevent food from entering the wrong pipe.
Vestibular folds False vocal cords; allows us to hold our breathe.
Vocal folds True vocal cords; allows us to speak
Trachea (windpipe) Made of connective tissue, smooth, and pseudostratified epithelium
What has 16 to 20 C-shaped pieces of cartilage? The cartilages protect the trachea and maintain an open passageway for air
Left bronchi More horizontal.
Right Bronchi More vertical, shorter, wider, more likely to get an obstruction.
Bronchi The trachea divides into left and right primary bronchi that connect the lungs via a region called HILUM (where bronchi and blood vessels enter)
Lungs Right has 3 lobes. Left has 2 lobes.
What is a bronchopulmonary segment? A diseased segment can be removed without affecting other segments because major blood vessels and bronchi don't cross into other segments.
Alveolar ducts Respiratory bronchioles form these ducts that open into the alveoli which are small air sacs.
Respiratory membrane Gas exchange between blood and air. Between walls of alveoli and surrounding capillaries.
What are 2 principle factors that govern air flow in and out of the lungs? 1. Changes in volume result in changes in pressure. 2. Air uses diffusion to go from an area of high concentration to low concentration.
What happens when alveolar pressure=atmospheric pressure? End of expiration (exhaling) or end of inspiration (inhaling)
What happens when alveolar pressure < atmospheric pressure? During inspiration (inhaling)
What happens when alveolar pressure> atmospheric pressure? During expiration (exhaling)
What is lung recoil? The tendency for an expanded lung to decrease in size.
What prevents lungs from collapsing? 1. Surfactant (reduces surface tension) 2. Pressure in pleural cavity
Where are the major areas of gas exchange? Primarily in the alveoli but also in the respiratory bronchioles and alveolar duct.
What things affect gas exchange across the respiratory membrane? 1.) Respiratory membrane thickness ( if thickness increases, diffusion decreases) 2. Surface area ( more surface area, more diffusion) 3.) Partial pressure (too much gas, not enough oxygen)
When is hemoglobin attracted to oxygen? When there is a high level of oxygen. But when there is low levels of oxygen, hemoglobin is no longer attracted to it.
What factors influence release of oxygen from hemoglobin? Low oxygen levels, high carbon dioxide levels, low pH, and high temperature.
What is hypercania? Too much C02 in the body.
What is hypoxia? Not enough 02.
What is cystic fibrosis? Inherited condition from a defective gene that causes build-up of thick mucus which blocks airflow.
What is botulism? Caused by a bacterium that blocks nerve signals to skeletal muscle including those that work the lungs.
Created by: smwondr