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Bio102 Test 1

Chapters: 19,20,21,22

QuestionAnswer
Branch of biology concerned with identifying, describing, and naming organisms. Taxonomy
The scientific name of an organism, the first part of which designates the genus and the second part of which designates the specific epithet. Binomial nomenclature
Why are the scientific names in Latin? The natural groups classification reflects the evolutionary history of organisms and the development of DNA sequencing helped create more accurate classifications.
List the classification Hierarchy Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
Which is the most inclusive and least inclusive of the classification hierarchy? Most Inclusive: Domain Least Inclusive: Species
List the 3 domains and the four kingdoms in one of the domains. Domains: Bacteria Archeae Eukarya: Plant Animal Protists Fungi
Traits that are found in a common ancestor and its descendants. Ancestral traits
Structural, physiological, or behavioral trait that is present in a specific lineage and is not present in the common ancestor for several related lineages. Derived traits
A diagram that indicates common ancestors and lines of descent among a group of organisms Phylogenetic tree
A structure that is similar in different types of organisms because these organisms are from a common ancestor. Homologous structure
Structure that has a similar function in separate lineages but differs in anatomy and ancestry. Analogous structure
What three traits are used to categorize a virus? Capsid: outer layer some enveloped by membrane; others naked Nucleic acid pore: DNA or RNA Shape: polyhedral, helical, spherical
What is an obligate intercellular parasite? Viruses, which cannot replicate outside a living cell
What is a bacteriophage? Viruses that infect bacterial cells
The virus takes over the operation of the bacterium immediately upon entering it and subsequently destroys the bacterium. Lytic cycle
The virus incorporates its DNA into that of a bacterium; occurs preliminary to the lytic cycle Lysogenic cycle
What are the five stages of the lytic cycle? 1. Attachment 2. Penetration 3. Biosynthesis 4. Maturation 5. Release
Organism that lacks a membrane bound nucleus and the membranous organelles typical of eukaryotes. Movement by some type of flagella Prokaryote
Extrachromosomal ring of accessory DNA in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes. Plasmid
How do bacteria replicate? Binary fission
Three methods of genetic recombination 1. Conjugation 2. Transformation 3. Transduction
Three shapes of bacteria Spirillum (spiral shaped) Bacilli (rod-shaped) Cocci (spherical)
Decomposers that break down organic matter from dead organisms Saprotroph
What is another term for a parasite that causes a disease? Pathogen
What type of bacteria is photoautotrophic? Cyanobacteria
Three types of living conditions of archaea (extremophiles) 1. Methanogens (obligate anaerobes) found in swamps, marshes, intestinal tracts 2. Halophiles: require high salt concentrations 3. Thermoacidophiles: thrive in extremely hot, acidic environments (hot springs, geysers, thermal vents, and volcanoes.
What type of green algae uses conjugation tubes? Spirogyra
Used to make agar, capsules for vitamins, anti drying agent for baked goods, jellies, and desserts to set rapidly. Red algae
Used filtering agents, sound proofing materials, and polishing abrasives such as those found in silver polish and toothpaste. Diatoms
"Red tide". Causes massive fish kills, releases powerful neurotoxin (saxitoxin), can cause shellfish poisoning (respiratory paralysis) Overgrowth of dinoflagellates
Micro-nucleus is used for in ciliates (paramecium)? Reproduction
Macro-nucleus is used for in ciliates (paramecium)? Metabolism
What organism is responsible for Malaria? Plasmodium
What organism is responsible for Toxoplasmosis? Toxoplasma (apicomplexan)
What organism is responsible for Vaginitis? Parabasalids
Created by: 991482560928082