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Bontrager Chap 1. Procedures1

How many bones in the human body? 206
Functions of the skeletal system? Support & protect soft tissues, -Allows movement. -Production of blood cells. -Store calcium.
Muscular system and skeletal system combined may be referred to as what? The locomotor system.
Axial skeleton has __ bones. They are located where? 80. These bones lie on or near the central axis of the body; skull, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum.
Appendicular skeleton has ___ bones. They are located where? 126. upper and lower limbs, shoulder and pelvic girdles.
What is a sesamoid bone? Small, oval shaped bone that is not included as part of the axial or appendicular skeleton. They are embedded in tendons. Patellae are the two largest.
Long bones are found only in the ___ ____. Appendicular skeleton.
Compact bone? Outer shell AKA cortex.
The body? AKA shaft. contains a thick layer of compact bone that is found at the ends of a long bone to help resist stress applied to them.
Where is the spongy or cancellous bone found? Inside the shell of the of the compact bone, especially at the ends of each long bone.
______ is highly porous and usually contains red bone marrow, which is responsible for red blood cell productions. Cancellous bone.
Medullary cavity. Hollow portion of long bone. Usually contains fatty yellow marrow in adults.
Periosteum. Dense, fibrous membrane that covers bone except at the articulating surfaces.
What are articulating surfaces covered by? Hyaline cartilage/articular cartilage.
What is the periosteum? Membrane covering that is essential for bone growth, repair, and nutrition.
Nutrient foramen? A hole in the compact bone that a nutrient artery will pass through into the medullary cavity.
Where are short bones? Only 8 carpel bones of each wrist, and 7 tarsal bones of each foot are short bones.
What do short bones consist of? Cancellous tissue with a thin outer covering of compact bone.
What do flat bones consist of? Two plates of compact bone with cancellous bone and marrow between them. ex) skull cap, sternum, ribs, scapulae.
Diploe. The narrow space between the inner and outer table of flat bones within the cranium is the dipole.
Irregular bones. Peculiar shaped, such as the vertebrae, facial bones, bones of the pelvis.
What is ossification? The process by which bones form.
Where are red blood cells produced? In the marrow of certain flat and irregular bones as well as the ends of long bones.
What are the two types of bone formation? Intramembranous and endochondral.
Intramembranous ossification? Occurs rapidly and takes place in bones that are needed for protection, such as sutures.
Endochondral ossification? Cartilage. Much slower than intramembranous, it occurs in most parts of the skeleton but mostly in the long bones.
Diaphysis. is the first center or primary center, in Endochondral ossification. Becomes the body in a fully developed bone. Appear before birth.
Secondary centers of ossification appear where? Near the ends of long bones, mostly after birth.
Epiphysis? Each secondary center of ossification is called an epiphysis.
Epiphyseal plates? Cartilaginous plates found between the metaphysis and each epiphysis until skeletal growth is complete. Secondary center.
What is the metaphysis? The wider portion of a long bone that is adjacent to the epiphyseal plate. This is the area where bone growth in length occurs. Secondary center.
What is bone remodeling? A normal process where bone tissue is removed and new bone is made.
What is an osteoblast? Cell that builds bone
What is an osteocyte? Mature cell. Starts the remodeling process
What is an osteoclast? Cell that breaks down bone.
Synarthrosis Immovable
Amphiarthrosis limited movement
Diarthrosis Freely moveable
What are the three types of structural classifications of joints based off the tissue that separate the bones? Fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial.
Syndesmoses Fibrous joints. Amphiarthrodial.
Sutures Fibrous joints. Synarthrodial.
Gomphoses. Fibrous. Amphiarthrodial. (roots of teeth)
Cartilaginous joints Held together by cartilage. Allow little to no movement.
Symphyses Cartilaginous. Amphiarthrodial. Flattened disk of fibrocartilage between bones. ex) intervertebral disks
Synchondroses Cartilaginous. Synarthrodial. Temporary form of joint where the hyaline cartilage in converted to bone in adulthood.
Synovial joints Freely moveable/diarthrodial. Characterized by a fibrous capsule that contains synovial fluid. Permit 7 types of movement.
Plane (gliding) joints Synovial. Sliding or gliding. ex) intermetacarpal, intercarpal, and carpometacarpal joints, C1 C2 vertebrae
Ginglymi (hinge) Synovial. Flexion and extension. ex)interphalangeal joints of fingers, toes, and elbow joints
Trochoid (pivot) Synovial. Rotational. ex) proximal and distal radioulnar
Ellipsoid (condylar) Synovial. Flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, circumduction. ex) metacarpophalangeal and wrist joints
Sellar (saddle) Synovial. Flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, circumduction. Same as Ellipsoid but bones are concave&convex to fit together. ex) first carpometacarpel joint (thumb), ankle.
Spheroidal (ball and socket) Synovial. Flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, circumduction, medial/lateral rotation. Hip and shoulder joints.
Bicondylar Synovial. Primarily only one direction movement with some limited rotation. Ex) knee and temporomandibular joints
Created by: Zoest35