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quiz 2

proteins cell structure, energy, hormones, cell surface receptors, etc.
amino acids basic unit of proteins
denaturing breaking of H bonds resulting in loss of protein conformation and function
nucleic acids control cellular activities
nucleotides basic units of nucleic acids
DNA store information about cell function in molecular code, passed on when cells reproduce
RNA help synthesize proteins coded for by DNA
cells are measured in what unit? micrometers (1/1000mm)
nucleus centrally located, control center of cell
cytoplasm surrounds nucleus, area within cell membrane
cell membrane surrounds cytoplasm
organelles distributed throughout cytoplasm
cytosol fluid component of cytoplasm; clear fluid in which cytoplasmic structures are suspended
cell or plasma membrane thin, highly flexible, complex surface features. regulates passage of substances into and out of cell. transmits stimulation from outside cell (signal transduction)
structure of cell or plasma membrane consists of lipids (including cholesterol) and proteins, some carbohydrates
lipid bilayer phospholipids have polar "head" and nonpolar "tail" Head is hydrophilic (attracts water molecules), the nonpolar tail is hydrophobic (repels water molecules)
fluid mosaic lipid molecules are free to move sideways (in place of the membrane), forming a thin, stable, liquid film
permeability selectively permeable (liquid soluble molecules pass through easily) (water-soluble molecules cannot pass through)
transmembrane proteins extend through lipid bilayer, and protrude into both cytoplasm and outside surface of membrane
peripheral proteins project from the membrane's outer surface
integral proteins span the membrane
shape classifications fibrous proteins - tightly coiled, rod-like globular proteins - more compact
cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) determines cell interactions with other cells
carbohydrates glycoproteins and glycolipids - cell-to-cell recognition, and receptors
inclusions temporarily-stored chemicals, such as nutrients or melanin
cytoskeleton framework of protein rods and tubules
ribosomes site of protein synthesis; found attached to ER membranes and scattered throughout cytoplasm; composed of protein and RNA molecules
polysomes clusters of ribosomes in cytoplasm, which can quickly synthesize large amounts of proteins
endoplasmic reticulum (ER) rough endoplasmic reticulum; smooth endoplasmic reticulum
rough endoplasmic reticulum contains ribosomes; function: synthesize proteins
smooth endoplasmic reticulum lacks ribosomes; functions: transports products of rough ER, synthesizes lipids, absorption of fats from digestive tract, metabolism of drugs
vesicles Function: membranous sacs which form by pinching off of cell membrane, used for transporting substances within cell
Golgi apparatus Function: processing and packing center for proteins and lipids produced in the ER; molecules of glycoproteins (sugars bound to proteins) from ER attach to receptors of Golgi apparatus
secretory vesicles bud off outermost end of Golgi apparatus, and travel with altered molecules to cell membrane
mitochondria function: produces reactions which release energy (in the formation of ATP) from glucose and other organic molecules
cristae folds of inner membrane; contain enzymes which facilitate energy-producing reactions
lysosomes Function: contain enzymes capable of breaking down cellular or nutrient material
peroxisomes Function: catalyze formation of substances that break down, or digest substances which may be harmful to the cells
centrosome consists of 2 centrioles (hollow cylinders) Function: controls chromosome distribution during cell division
Microfilaments & Microtubules thin, threadlike processes within the cytoplasm. Functions: cause various types of cellular movement, provide internal structure and strength to cell and parts
cilia and flagella motile (moveable) structures which project outward from cell surface. Function: to move cell through environment (flagellum) or move fluids and particles across cell surface (cilia)
nuclear envelope (double layered membrane); divides nucleus form the rest of the cell, protein-linked channels called nuclear pores allow certain molecules to exit the nucleus. Function: regulates passage of molecules into and out of nucleus
Nucleoplasm fluid within nuclear envelope
nucleolus RNA+protein; Function: assists in production of ribosomes
chromatin DNA +protein (loosely coiled) Function: direct protein synthesis through information contained in DNA... Strands condense at reproduction phase, chromosomes become visible
diffusion spontaneous movement of molecules from region of higher to region of lower concentration
facilitated diffusion protein carrier molecules facilitate molecular movement from higher to lower concentrations
osmosis movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from higher concentration to lower concentration
osmotic pressure ability to generate enough pressure to lift a volume of water
hypertonic solution solute ions more concentrated outside cell membrane: water moves inside to outside
hypotonic solution solute ions more concentrated inside cell membrane: water moves outside to inside
isotonic solution solute ions equally concentrated outside and inside:no net movement of water
filtration molecules forced through membranes by higher pressure on one side
active transport movement from lower to higher concentrations
protein carrier molecules pumps, change shape when bound to molecule to be carried
vesicle formation mechanisms molecules too large to enter by other mechanisms
endocytosis bringing substances into cell
pinocytosis liquids
phagocytosis solids (phagocytes engulf and destroy foreign organisms)
receptor-mediated endocytosis protein receptors bind only specific kinds of particles from outside the cell, and move them through the cell membrane... specific particles are called ligands
exocytosis expelling substances from cell in a reverse of the process of endocytosis
transcytosis combines endo - and exocytosis to transport particles across cells
checkpoints events which control the cell cycle
what is cell cycle regulated by? hormones, growth factors
inerphase large amount of synthetic activity.. several phases.. S phase-DNA replicated, G1 phase - cell undergoes growth, G2 phase when other structures are replicated in preparation for cell division
Mitosis meiosis (reduction division) - sex cells only
mitosis and cytokineses increases what? cell numbers
Mitosis phases.. prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis
prophase chromosomes become visible, nuclear envelope disintegrates, spindle fibers form
metaphase chromosomes line up along midline of cell, spindle fibers attach to centrosomes
anaphase chromatids separate, move toward opposite ends of cell
telophase chromatids complete movement to ends, nuclear envelope re-forms, nucleoli appear, microtubules disassemble into molecules
cytokinesis pinches inward, separating the two newly formed nuclei, and distributing half the organelles into each new cell
cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis) begins during anaphase; cell membrane starts to constrict down the middle (clevage furrow)
telomeres number of cell divisions is under the control of a built-in "clock" at the tips of the chromosomes. shorten with each division, until, the cell no longer divides
tumors too frequent or continual mitosis
benign remains in place, but grows to interfere with function
malignant grows outward, extensions, eventually cells migrate to other areas of the body
oncogenes abnormal versions of genes that regulate cell cycle
inactive tumor suppressor genes leads to uncontrolled mitosis
differentiation the process of cell specialization
stem cells cells that retain the ability to divide repeatedly without specialization
progenitor cell slightly more specialized than a stem cell
apoptosis cell death as a result of normal development rather than injury or disease
apoptosis steps rounds up and bulges.. nuclear membrane breaks down.. chromatin condenses.. enzymes chop the chromosomes into small pieces.. cell shatters into membrane-enclosed fragments.. scavenger cells consume and digest the fragments
anabolism buildup of larger molecules from smaller ones (growth and repair)
dehydration synthesis linking smaller units into larger molecules removes a hydroxyl group (OH) and a hydrogen atom which react to produce water (H2O)
catabolism breakdown of larger molecules into smaller ones
hydrolysis decomposes carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, and splits a water molecule in the process often reversible, although enzymes for catabolism are often different from those of anabolism
activation energy promote chemical reactions by lowering the amount of energy needed to start the reaction
catalysis speed up rates of chemical reactions
substrate particular chemical on which enzymes act
metabolic pathways sequences of enzyme-controlled reactions
rate-limiting enzyme often the first enzyme in a series
cofactor nonprotein component
coenzyme may be an ion of an element, or a small organic molecule, such as a vitamin
vitamins essential organic molecules that cannot be synthesized at all or in sufficient amounts, and must come from the diet
oxidation cells release energy from glucose molecules
what is ATP? adenosine triphosphate
what is ADP? adenosine diphosphate
glycolysis occurs in the cytosol, does not require oxygen (anaerobic), produces pyruvic acid
Created by: 1371661736