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evolution the process of change by which new species develop from preexisting species over time
species a group of organisms that are closely related and can mate to produce fertile offspring; also the level of classification below genus and above subspecies
fossil the trace or remains of an organism that lived long ago, most commonly preserved in sedimentary rock
variation differences in physical traits of an individual from the group to which it belongs
adaptation the process of becoming adapted to an environment; an anatomical, physiological, or population's ability to survive
biogeography the study of the geographical distribution of living organsims and fossils on Earth
homologous structure body part that is similar in structure on different organisms but performs different functions
analogous structure body part that is similar in function as a body part of another organism but is structurally different
vestigial structure remnants of an organ or structure that functioned in an earlier ancestor
gene flow the movement of genes into or out of a popoulation due to interbreeding
genetic dift the random change in allele frequency in a population
bottleneck effect genetic drift that results from an event that drastically reduces the size of population
founder effect genetic drift that occurs after a small number of individuals colonize a new area
sexual selection an evolutionary mechanism by which traits that increase the ability of individuals to attact or acquire mates appear with increaseing frequency in a population
reproductive isolation a state in which a particular set of populations can no longer interbreed to produce future generations of offspring
speciation the formation of new species as a result of evolution
behavioral isolation isolation between population due to differences in courtship or mating behavior
geographic isolation isolation between populations due to physical barriers
temporal isolation isolation between populations due to barriers related to time, such as differences in mating periods or differences in the time of day that individuals are the most active
convergent evolution the process by which unrelated species became more similar as they adapt to the same kind of environment
divergent evolution evolution of one or more closely related species into differen species; resulting from adaptations to different environmental conditions
coevolution the evolution of two or more species that is due to mutual influence often in a way that makes the relationship more mutually beneficial
extinction the death of every member of a species
cyanobacteria bacteria that can carry out photosynthesis
endosymbiosis a mutually beneficial relationship in which one orgnaism lives within another
phylogeny the evolutionary history of a species or taxonomic group
cladistics a phylogenetic classification system that uses shared derived characters and ancestry as the sole criterion for grouping taxa
cladogram a diagram that is based on patterns of shared derived traits and that shows the evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms
derived character a feature or trait involved only within a particular taxonomic group
taxonomy the science of describing, naming and classifying organsisms
taxon any taxonomic group of any rank in a hierarchical classification of organisms,; for example: genus, species, or class
binomial nomenclautre a system for giving each organisms a two -word scientific name that consists of the genus name followed by the species name.
genus the level of classification that comes after family and contains similar species
domain the most broad taxon for classifying living organisms of which there are three: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryota
Created by: lpgullett