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Genetics

TermDefinition
genes control your traits by controlling how proteins are made
heterozygous two different alleles, Aa
homozygous two of the same alleles, aa
genotype genetic make up, what alleles someone has
phenotype physical characteristics
dominant trait that dominates, shows up, uppercase letter
recessive only shows up when there is no dominant allele, lowercase letter
gametes sex cells, eggs or sperm
somatic cells body cells
haploid half the # of chromosomes, only have one of each
diploid two of every chromosome
homologous chromosome are the same size and shape, carry the same genes. one comes from mom and the other comes from dad
Law of Dominance some alleles are dominant over other alleles
Law of Segregation meiosis separates chromosomes
Law of Independent Assortment the segregation of alleles for one trait does not affect the segregation of alleles for another trait
autosomes the first 22 pairs of chromosomes in humans, regular chromsosomes
sex chromosomes are XX for females and XY for males
incomplete dominance two alleles blend together, one is not totally dominant over another. Example: red and white flowers making pink flowers
codominance two alleles show up side by side. Example: a red cow and and a white cow breed and have a red and white spotted calf
multiple alleles there are more than two alleles for one gene. Example: blood type has A, B, or O alleles.
polygenic traits are controlled by many genes. Example: height, skin color, eye color
Interaction of environment and phenotype When your environment has an influence on how you look: Example, you have genes for light skin, but the sun makes your skin dark
X-linked traits are carried on the X chromosome so females get two alleles because they have XX and males only get one allele because they are XY
Created by: kweldy