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SLS Bio 12 digestion

SLS BIO 12 Digestion EVV

Absorption a condition in which something takes in another substance
anaerobic bacteria anaerobic bacteria can grow in the presence as well as in the absence of air.
anus function is to control the expulsion of feces, unwanted semi-solid matter produced during digestion
appendix a haven for useful bacteria when illness flushes those bacteria from the rest of the intestines.
bile a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.
capillary any of the fine branching blood vessels that form a network between the arterioles and venules.
cardiac sphincter a physiological structure at the junction of distal end of Esophagus and proximal part of the Stomach. It acts like a valve and guards passage of food between esophagus and stomach.
chemical digestion begins in the mouth when food mixes with saliva. Saliva contains an enzyme (amylase) that begins the breakdown of carbohydrates.
digestive enzyme enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules into their smaller building blocks, in order to facilitate their absorption by the body.
digestive track Food passes through a long tube inside the body
duodenum the first part of the small intestine immediately beyond the stomach, leading to the jejunum.
emulsification The breakdown of fat globules in the duodenum into tiny droplets, which provides a larger surface area on which the enzyme pancreatic lipase can act to digest the fats into fatty acids and glycerol.
epiglottis a flap of cartilage at the root of the tongue, which is depressed during swallowing to cover the opening of the windpipe.
esophagus the part of the alimentary canal that connects the throat to the stomach; the gullet. In humans and other vertebrates it is a muscular tube lined with mucous membrane.
gall bladder a small organ where bile (a fluid produced by the liver) is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine.
gastric juice thin, strongly acidic ( p H from 1 to 3), almost colorless liquid secreted by the glands in the lining of the stomach. Its essential constituents are the digestive enzymes pepsin and rennin, hydrochloric acid, and mucus.
hydrochloric acid a clear, colorless, highly pungent solution of hydrogen chloride in water
insulin It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats by promoting the absorption of glucose from the blood to skeletal muscles and fat tissue and by causing fat to be stored rather than used
intestinal juice a fluid that is secreted in small quantity in the small intestine, is highly variable in constitution, and contains especially various enzymes ( and mucus
lacteals is a lymphatic capillary that absorbs dietary fats in the villi of the small intestine.
large intestine he last part of the digestive system in vertebrates. Water is absorbed here and the remaining waste material is stored as feces before being removed by defecation
lipase a protein (enzyme) released by the pancreas into the small intestine. It helps the body absorb fat.
liver a large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates, involved in many metabolic processes.
maltase an enzyme located in on the brush border of the small intestine that breaks down the disaccharide maltose
microvilli are microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area of cells and minimize any increase in volume, and are involved in a wide variety of functions
nuclease an enzyme capable of cleaving the phosphodiester bonds between the nucleotide subunits of nucleic acids.
pancreas secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that assist digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. These enzymes help to further break down the carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in the chyme.
pancreatic amylase hydrolyse dietary starch into disaccharides and trisaccharides which are converted by other enzymes to glucose to supply the body with energy.
protease any enzyme that performs proteolysis, that is, begins protein catabolism by hydrolysis of the peptide bonds that link amino acids together in a polypeptide chain.
pyloric sphincter connects the stomach to the duodenum.
rectum the final section of the large intestine, terminating at the anus.
salivary amylase an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars. Amylase is present in the saliva
salivary gland important to lubricate your mouth, help with swallowing, protect your teeth against bacteria, and aid in the digestion of food
salivary juice a watery substance located in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.
small intestine the part of the intestine that runs between the stomach and the large intestine; the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum collectively.
sodium bicarbonate a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO₃. It is a salt composed of sodium ions and bicarbonate ions
stomach he internal organ in which the major part of the digestion of food occurs
swallowing cause or allow (something, especially food or drink) to pass down the throat.
trypsin found in the digestive system of many vertebrates, where it hydrolyses proteins.Trypsin is formed in the small intestine
villus are small, finger-like projections that protrude from the epithelial lining of the small intestine's walls.
Created by: evanvliet