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Chp. 12, Section 1

Vocab for 12.1 Biology

Autosome Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
Chromosome map A diagram of gene positions on a chromosome
Deletion The loss of a part of DNA from a chromosome
Frameshift mutation A mutation, such as an insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in a coding sequence, that results in the misreading of the code during translation because of a change in the reading frame
Germ-cell mutation A mutation that occurs in an organism's gametes
Insertion mutation A mutation in which one or more nucleotides are added to a gene
Inversion A reversal in the order of the genes, or of a chromosome segment, within a chromosome
Lethal mutation A gene or chromosomal mutation that influences the development of an organism in such a way that the organism cannot survive
Linked gene One of a pair of genes that tend to be inherited together
Map unit In chromosome mapping, an increment of 1 percent in the frequency of crossing-over
Nondisjunction The failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during meiosis I or the failure of sister chromatids to separate during mitosis or meiosis II
Point mutation A mutation in which only one nucleotide or nitrogenous base in a gene is changed
Sex-chromosome One of the pair of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
Sex-linked trait A trait that is determined by a gene found on one of the sex chromosomes, such as the X chromosome or the Y chromosome in humans
Somatic-cell mutation A mutation that occurs in a body cell
Substitution A mutation in which a nucleotide or a codon in DNA is replaced with a different nucleotide
Translocation The movement of a segment of DNA from one chromosome to another, which results in a change in the position of the segment
Created by: CareGraceR