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LE Digestion Vocab

LE Nutrition Digestion Vocab

TermDefinition
Ingestion taking in of nutrients/food
mechanical digestion physical breaking apart of large pieces to small pieces
chemical digestion breaks large molecules (polymers) into small molecules (monomers); carbs --> simple sugars proteins --> amino acids lipids --> fatty acids & glycerol
absorption transfer of small molecules across CELL membrane
mouth site of ingestion; site of mechanical digestion & chemical digestion of carbohydrates/starches
epiglottis flap that covers the trachea to prevent food from entering trachea
esophagus tube that connects mouth (pharynx) to stomach
stomach bag shaped organ; site of mechanical digestion (churning) & chemical digestion to form chyme; beginning of protein digestion
peristalsis squeezing action that propels food through the esophagus
small intestines absorption of nutrients & chemical digestion
large intestines absorption of water
liver produces bile and other enzymes, detoxifies blood
gall bladder stores bile
pancreas produces insulin & glucagon for the breakdown of glucose
rectum storage place for feces
anus sphincter that controls elimination of feces
chyme partially digested food found in the stomach
bolus small ball of chyme that enters small intestines
buffer sodium bicarbonate neutralizes acidic chyme in small intestines
absorption transfer of small molecules across CELL membrane
villi fingerlike projections found in small intestines that increase surface area for absorption
22. amylase enzyme that breaks down starches; found in saliva (in mouth)
23. lipase enzyme that breaks down lipids (in small intestines)
24. protease enzyme that breaks down proteins (in stomach)
25. bile emulsifies lipids (breaks lipids to small particles); stored in gall bladder --> small intestines
26. pepsin enzyme that breaks down proteins (in stomach)
27. pepsinogen enzyme that breaks down proteins (in stomach)
Created by: jgarrisi