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LE Review

TermDefinition
Single celled organism made of just 1 cell
Transport move from one place to another
Molecule chemical compound; complex
Building block what something is made of; what you put together to get something else
Ecosystem all the living and nonliving (biotic & abiotic) substances in an area
Producer organism that makes its own food (by photosynthesis or chemosynthesis)
Consumer organism that must eat other organisms for its food; cannot make its own food
Placenta organ that supplies nutrients to fetus and removes wastes from fetus; connected to fetus by umbilical cord
Fetus unborn offspring that is developing in the uterus in mammals
Uterus organ where a fetus develops in mammals
Disruption stopping a process or activity before it is completed
Offspring sons or daughters born from parents
Identical exactly the same right down to the DNA
Process series of steps to achieve a result
Cloning fusion of a skin or non sex nucleus into an egg that results in an identical offspring to parent of nuclear DNA
Fertilization fusion of egg and a sperm
Meiotic cell division division that results in 4 daughter cells with ½ the # of chromosomes
Selective breeding 2 parents with trait wanted bred together to get desired trait in offspring; choosing a few organisms with a desired trait to mate to produce offspring with that trait.
Cell structure part of the cell; organelles
Mitochondria organelle responsible for cellular respiration (energy source); powerhouse of cell; mighty mitochondria
Synthesize to put together to make a single substance
Organelles cell structure that performs a specific function or job
Function job of the organ or organelle or organism or niche of organism
Ultraviolet radiation invisible rays from the sun that can cause mutations (changes from normal
Genetic change change in DNA; can be passed down to future generations if in gametes; if in skin cells, cannot be passed down to offspring
Biofuel fuel made from substances such as corn; (food products), used oil
Ecological refers to the environment (usually in reference to protecting the environment)
Biodiversity presence of a variety of version of a given trait in a species to ensure species survival: peppered moths – white & black coloring
Harvested taking in the results of the growing season
Population a group of a given species in a specific location – dogs, cats, lions, tigers, bears
Stability a system is balanced; at homeostasis; no overall change in the system
Gene a segment of DNA that contains the code for a specific trait
Trait observable expression of a gene determined by 2 alleles of the gene
Gametes egg & sperm; sex cells
Evolution process by which species change over time
Species group of organisms with the same characteristics and can mate with each other
Finite definite or specific amount of time or amount; gone after that point
Circulation transport of materials (blood) through the body; from one place to another by way of arteries, veins, capillaries & the heart
Mutations changes in the genetic code (DNA) that produce changes in the body
Feedback mechanism cycle where the outcome is either increased/enhanced (positive feedback) or decreased or stopped (negative feedback
Genetic engineering human technology that alters genetic makeup of organisms, usually by substitution
Potential possible ability
Pollution a harmful change in the chemical make up of the soil, air or water
Regulate control
Binary fission split into 2 identical organism; form of asexual reproduction
Organic molecules molecules that have both C & H in them; proteins, carbohydrates, fats & lipids, DNA, RNA (amino acids, simple sugars, glycerol & fatty acids)
Autotrophic makes own food
Heterotrophic cannot make own food, must take in food
Chromosome threadlike strand that contains DNA
Chemical reaction when 2 or more chemicals react to form a new product
Metabolic life activities that cells and living organism undergo: growth, reproduction, response to environment, digestion, excretion, respiration, circulation
Asexual reproduction reproduction that results in 2 offspring identical to the parent with the same number of chromosome
Antibiotics man made medicine used to kill bacterial cells and fight infections
Bacteria single celled organism that lacks a nucleus; pathogen (foreign to the body
Antibiotic resistant bacteria bacteria that contain genetic blueprint that makes them resistant to antibiotics; antibiotics don’t kill them
Virus nonliving protein particle with genetic material that invades cells and replicates; pathogen
Vaccination an injection containing a vaccine (a weakened, killed or partial piece of the virus)
Pathogen foreign substance that invades the body causing disease
Resources available material needed for a specific purpose (to supply energy --> coal, oil, water, wind…)
Stability balance; homeostasis; dynamic equilibrium
Malfunction doesn’t work right
Circulatory system organ system responsible for transporting materials throughout your body; includes heart, arteries, veins, capillaries, blood (plasma, RBC, WBC, platelets
Inorganic materials materials that have C or H but not both together; CO2, H2O, acids, bases, salts
Cytoplasm fluid portion of the cell where biochemical reactions occur
Chloroplast found in green plants; site of photosynthesis
Guard cells cells that surround the stomates; open & close to control water loss
Stomates openings at the undersides of leafs that allow water and gas exchange between plant & environment
Absorption to take in by diffusion (no energy needed); nutrients, water, oxygen
Synthesis the putting together of substances; making a larger molecule from smaller ones: aa + aa --> protein; simple sugar + simple sugar --> starch or carb; 3 fatty acids + glycerol --> lipid
Active transport low to high concentration with the use of energy
Passive transport or diffusion high to low without the use of energy
Deletion removal of nitrogenous bases resulting in a shortening of the segment of DNA
Insertion addition of nitrogenous bases resulting in a lengthening of the DNA segment
Substitution replacing of one nitrogenous base with another
Replication make an exact copy of the DNA segment
Consequence a result of an action
Digestion to break down large nutrient molecules into smaller ones by use of enzymes (starch --> simple sugars, proteins --> amino acids, lipids --> fatty acids & glycerol) (opposite of synthesis)
Phenotype genetic characteristics that can be observed
Genotype genetic make up of trait
Niche job or role of organism in the ecosystem
Habitat place where an organism lives
Ecological succession the replacement of organisms in an environment due to environmental changes
Antibody substance produced by the immune system (WBCs) to fight off infection
Hypothesis educated guess as to the answer to a question or problem
Validity the ability to obtain the same results with repeated testing (single variable, large sampling, repeatable)
Clone an organism that is genetically identical to the organism from which it was produced
Inference a conclusion or deduction based on observations
Prey animal that is hunted and eaten
Predator animal that does the hunting
Carrying capacity the largest population of any single species that an area can support
Feedback action will result in a reaction to return system to equilibrium
Positive feedback action will result in increase of the reaction
Negative feedback action will result in decrease of the reaction
Created by: jgarrisi