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ecological succession process by which an ecosystem matures; it is gradual, sequential, and somewhat predictable change in the composition of the community
ecosystem development takes into account the accompanying modifications in the physical environment brought about by the actions of living organisms
primary succession development of a new ecosystem in an area previously devoid of organisms
secondary succession regrowth that occurs after an ecosystem has been disturbed, often by human activity
pioneer species hardy organisms like lichens and microbes that are capable of becoming established on bare rock and beginning the soil-building process
climax community association of organisms best adapted to the physical conditions of a define geographic area
ecotone edge community
dynamic equilibrium property of constant adjustment to change, maintaining an overall balance
feedback any factor which influences the same trend that produced it
positive feedback output that promotes a trend
resiliency capacity of an ecosystem to undergo change and return to a similar, but not exact, system configuration
negative feedback output that interferes with the trend which produced it
inertia ability of an ecosystem to resist change
intraspecific competition competition between members of the same species
interspecific competition competition between members of different species
niche complete ecological description of an individual species, including all the physical, chemical, and biological factors that the species needs to survive and fulfill its role in the community
competitive exclusion principle different species with similar requirements sometimes compete to the elimination of on of them
symbiosis intimate association of 2 dissimilar species, regardless of the benefits or lack of them to both species
mutualism an association of 2 species in which both benefit
commensalism an association of 2 species in which one benefits and the other neigh benefits not is harmed
parasitism association of 2 species in which one benefits and the other is harmed
- predation one species consumes another
biotic potential maximum growth rate that a population could achieve, given unlimited resources and ideal environmental conditions
environmental resistance limiting factors
carrying capacity the population size that can best be supported by the environment over time
density-dependent factors biotic; their effect is greater when population density is high
density-independent factors abiotic and independent of population size
diversity-stability hypothesis biodiversity promotes resistance 2 disturbance cause species differ in traits more diverse ecosystems are likely 2 contain some species that can thrive during environmental disturbance, species should b able 2 compensate 4 species affected by disturbance
rivet hypothesis likens species in an ecosystem to the rivets that hold together an airplane: Some species may be redundant, but others are not; therefore removing species beyond a threshold number may cause the ecosystem to collapse
redundancy hypothesis contends that there is considerable overlap in the roles that species play within an ecosystem as long as others which play the same role persist
null hypothesis ecosystem functions or processes are insensitive to the addition or deletion of species
Created by: tallzy14