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species includes all organisms of a particular kind that are capable of producing bible offspring (that is, individuals which can themselves produce offspring)
population disting group of individuals of a species that live, interbreed, and interact in the same geographic area
habitat place where the organism or population live
community all the populations of organisms that live and interact in a given area at a given time
ecosystem self-sustaining, self-regulating community of organism interacting with the physical environment within a defined geographic area
landscape many ecosystems taken together
biome consists of landscapes grouped across large terrestrial areas of the earth
biosphere thin layer of air, water, and soil that surrounds the planet and contains the conditions to support life
energy ability to do work—to move matter from place to place or to change matter from one form to another
first law of thermodynamics (first law of energy) states during a physical/chemical change, energy is neither created nor destroyed—it may be changed in form and it may be moved from place to place
second law of thermodynamics states that with each change in form, some energy is degraded to a less useful from and given off to the surroundings, usually as low-quality heat
entropy consequence of the second law of thermodynamics, energy constantly flows from concentrated and organized form to a randomly-dispersed and disorganized form
matter anything that has mass and takes up space
element substance that cannot be changed to a simpler substance by chemical means
atom smallest unit of an element that retains the unique characteristics of that element; it is the smallest particle of an element that can participate in a chemical reaction
molecule smallest particle of a substance that has the composition and chemical properties of that substance and is capable of independent existence
compound when 2+ elements chemically combine in definite proportions
organic compounds compounds containing carbon
law of conservation of matter during physical or chemical change, matter is neither created nor destroyed—form can change, can be moved
macronutrients chemicals needed by living organisms in large quantities for the construction of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates
micronutrients substances needed in trace amounts
producers autotrophs
autotrophs self-nourishing organisms—given water, nutrients and source of energy, they can produce compounds necessary for their survival
phototrophs most producers, including green plants, algae and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)
- photosynthesis phototrophs use sun’s light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into complex chemical bonds forming simple carbohydrates like glucose and fructose
chemotrophs autotrophs that use the energy found in inorganic chemical compounds for their energy needs
- chemosynthesis convert energy in chemical bonds of hydrogen sulfide to make and store carbohydrates—gives off sulfur compounds into the water
phytoplankton microscopic floating plants and algae, function as the major producers in aquatic systems
consumers heterotrophs
heterotrophs eat by engulfing or predigesting the fluids, cells, tissues, or water products of other organisms
macroconsumers feed by ingesting or engulfing particles, parts, or entire bodies of other organisms, either living or dead
herbivores primary consumers
primary consumers eat producers directly
- carnivores eat other animals
secondary consumers secondary consumers
omnivores consumers that eat both plants and animals
tertiary consumers carnivores that eat secondary consumers
scavengers those that consumer the entire dead organism
detritivores detritus feeders
detritus feeders consumers that ingest fragments of dead or decaying tissues or organic wastes
microconsumers feed on tissues of the dead organism; they also consume the waste products of living things
decomposers micro consumers that live on or within their food source
- limiting factors abiotic and biotic regulators that determine the distribution nd success of living organisms
eutrophication natural aging of a lake
law of tolerances living organisms, populations, and communities have a range of tolerances for each of the abiotic limiting factors
- indicator species species that indicates, by either its presence or absence, certain environmental conditions
prey living organisms serve as food for other organisms
- predators organisms that obtain their food by eating other living organisms
keystone species species that has significant role in community organization due to its impact on other species
Created by: tallzy14