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ECOLOGY

QuestionAnswer
What is G.R.I.M.N.E.R GROWTH, REPRODUCTION, IRRITABILY, MOVEMENT, NUTRITION, EXCRETION & RESPIRATION
WHAT IS GROWTH? Growth is an increase in size max and complexity
WHAT ARE THE 2 TYPES OF GROWTH IN ANIMALS AND PLANTS ? Continous growth which occours gradually without any breaks (eg-humans and mammals) and Discontinous growth which grows in spurts or short bursts usually through moulting
WHAT IS REPRODUCTION to produce offspring a sexual reproduction produces clones or identical copies
WHAT ARE THE 2 TYPES OF REPRODUCTION? Sexual reproduction which involves male & female gametes (sperm+ egg) AND asexual reproduction where there is only 1 gamete involved in sexual reproduction (
WHAT IS IRRITABILY/ IRRITATION the ability to detect and respond to changes in the environment
WHAT IS MOVEMENT? ALL ORGANISMS MOVE EVEN PLANTS MOVE BY GROWING. it is the change in position of a whole organism or parts of an organism
WHAT IS NUTRITION THE PROCESS OF TAKING IN FOOD. all organisms need food because it is a source of energy. animals get food from plants and other animals while plants are autotrophic and make their own food in photosynthesis
HOW DO PLANTS MAKE THEIR OWN FOOD? PHOTOSYHTHESIS
WHAT IS EXCRETION THE REMOVAL OF METABOLIC WASTE THROUGH THE 4 EXCRETORY ORGANS
WHAT ARE THE 4 EXCRETORY ORGANS? (K.L.L.S) KIDNEYS, LIVER, LUNGS & SKIN
WHAT IS THE DIVERNCE BETWEEN EGESTION AND EXCRETION egestion is the removal of INDIGESTED FOOD through the gut as faeces while excretion is the removal of METABOLIC WASTE
WHAT IS RESPIRATION? the metabolic process that produce energy in the body
what are the 2 types of respiration AEROBIC RESPIRATION which is the respiration in the presence of oxygen AND ANARABIC RESPIRATION which is respiration in the absence of oxygen
WHAT ARE VIRUSES viruses cannot be neatly classified they are said to be neither living nor dead on their own they dont exhibit any of the characters of g.r.i.m.n.e.r only when they invade body cells do they replicate
what is the difference between respiration and breathing breathing is the physical process of inhaling and exhaling which occours in the lungs and respiration is the metabolic process that produce energy and occours in the cells
what are the 5 kingdom classified as ? protocists, fungi, plants, animals & prokaryotes
what are prokaryotes? they are single celled bacteria with no nucleus and can be found in every part of the world
what is ecology? the study of organisms in their environment
what is abiotic factors? physical non-living factors eg- light, temperature, rainfall, wind, water avilability & soil type
what are biotic factors the factors that result from the e interactions of the organisms with each other and their environment eg- predation, symbiosis, competition & disease
what is a ecosystem? A community of plants and animals which interact with each other and their non living environment
what is a habitat? the place where an organism lives
what is population? a group of organisms of the same species living together in a habitat
what is species? a group of organisms of common ancestory that resemble each other and can interbreed to produce fertile offspring
what is a community ? Different populations of organisms livong in habitat interacting together
what is niche? the function of the organism in the environment
explain energy loses in a organism an organism loses energy once its alive it must continually replace this lost energy
where does all energy orginally come from ? the sun
how do plants produce energy? they use sunlight and organic components of the soil to produce energy
how is energy lost in heat, in respiration, in excretion etc
Living organisms can be placed into 2 groups either Antotrophs or heterotrophs
antotrophs Producers self- feeding organisms eg-plants in terrestrial food chains and green algae in aquatic ecosystem
heterotrophs organisms that do NOT make their own food eg- consumers
The types of heterotrophs Hebivores,carnivores , omnivores and decomposers
what are the first 3 trophic levels? producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer & tertiary consumer
which are more accurate food chains or food webs and why? food webs because most animals have more than one food source and are prayed upon by more than one animal therefore showing the interconnections that food chains cannot
what are decomposers? bacteria and fungi that feed on dead and decaying matter. they break down organic matter and return nutrients to the soil for plants to use
what do food chains do ? food chains show the energy flow in the ecosystem
what are carnivores an organism that feeds on other organisms they hunt and kill other animals for food
what are herbivores a plant eating organism
what are omnivores ? an organism that feeds on BOTH animals & plants eg- pigs & humans
What is symbiosis? A close relationship between 2 organisms
what are 3 different types of symbiosis parasitism, commensalism & mutalism
what is parasitism a type of symbiosis involving 2 kind of species, the parasite and the host It is where one partner and the other is harmed
what is commensalism ? Where one parther benefits and the other is neither benefited or harmed
what is mutalism? Mutalism is a relationship between 2 species in which both benefits
What are pyramids of energy? An ecological pyramid which shows the decrease in energy along the food chain
what are pyramid of numbers? an ecological pyramid which shows the number of organisms in each trophic level in a food chain
what are pyramids of biomass? an ecological pyramid which shows the decrease in the total biomass at each tropic level of a food chain
what are the parts of the animal cell? (M.C.C G.R.V.N) mitochondria, cell serface membrane ,cytoplasm, glycogen granules, vacuoles and nycleus
What is the function of the mitochondria Produces energy Is the powerhouse of the cell
What is the function of Cytoplasm surrounds all cell organelle
What is the function of the cell surface membrane controls substances entering and leaving the cell
What is the function of glycogen granules ? Energy is started as glycogen in animal cells
What is the function of ribosomes makes proteins
What is the function of vacuoles? Small vacuoles in animal cells Contains waste nutrients or enzymes
which group is the most ancient of organisms prokaryotes
examples of prokaryotes bacteria
protocists unicellular, has a true nucleus and no cell wall
examples of protocists algae and protozoa
algae lives in both marine and fresh water and some live on the surface where it is damp and make their own food in photosynthesis
protozoa feed on other organisms and found in all environments, especially water
examples of fungi moulds, yeasts and mushrooms
how do fungi obtain food from the environment.they do not take large particles of food that need to be broken down. they digest their food outside using enzymes which makes it soluble then they absorb the food so they are usually found living in or on their food which can be a d
importance of fungi to man used to make a range of chemical products,causes spoilage of food, used in alcoholic beverages
plants usually stationary, cells have cell walls and contain chlorophyll, makes their food in photosynthesis
examples of plants mosses, liverwoods, ferns, conifers and flowering plants
flowering plants and the 2 types has true flowers and make seeds. they are called angiosperms and are dived into 2 groups either the monocotyledons and dicotyledons
the largest group of plants angiosperms. they include most crops,ornamental plants and used as herbs or medicinal plants
a plant that can be used as medicine bidens used to cool the blood in prickly heat and relieve a sick stomach
features of monocotyledons has 1 cotyledon or seed leaf and their leaf has parallel veins example is corn
features of dicotyledons Has 2 cotyledon or seed leaves and their leaves has net-like or branching veins. an examples is hibiscus
viruses do not fit into any classification, is the smallest organism and it is difficult to think of them as living beause they only live inside another living cell
examples of viruses small pox, measels and aids
ditchotomous key a chart which clarifies objects by dividing them into 2 smaller groups at each stage, we use a dichotomous key to help us decide which group to put an organism in
the binomial system a system for naming each species of organisms with a biological name
how many vertebrates are there in your body 33
the 2 ways to classify organisms are artificial and natural
artificial classification grouping based on easily observed characteristics such as body shape, number of legs etc and is a easy method of grouping animals
natural classification based on natural relationships between organisms using both internal and external characteristics(more accurate form of classification)
CLASSIFICATION for plants (king david comes over for good soup) kingdom,division, class,order,family, genus and species
classification for ANIMALS KINGDOM, PHYLE, CLASS, ORDER,FAMILY,GENUS & SPECIES
ANIMALIA cnidaria, plathyhelmintles, mollusca, annelida, arthropoda, nomatoda and chordata
Species
Speciation The process by which species are formed. This occurs by geographical isolation
Geographical isolation When groups of a population become isolated in some way
Breeds In animals these species are called breeds
Varieties In plants
Races In humans
Microhabitat A very small habitat
The difference between population and community Community is all population of species in the ecosystem while population is the amount of one specific organism in a place found in an ecosystem
Distribution of species How an organism adapts to living in an environment
Effects of distribution Water,light , temperature and heavy metals
Saprophyte The name given to any organism that feeds on dead organic material. Eg-decomposers and detritivores
Predation The continued feeding of one animal species to another
Predators Carnivores that feed on other animals
Benefits of predators The keep population in check by preventing dramatic surges in numbers and they also help The prey population by killing and eating mainly the weaker members meaning only the healthier bitter prey survive
Prey Animals that are fed on by predators
Created by: Victoriatori678