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Chapter 9, Section 1

Vocab for 9.1 Biology

TermDefinition
Allele One of the alternative versions of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color
Cross-pollination A reproductive process in which pollen from one plant is transferred to the stigma of another plant
Dominant Describes the allele that is fully expressed when carried by only one of a pair of homologous chromosomes
F1 generation The first generation of offspring obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms
F2 generation The second generation of offspring obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms; the offspring of the F1 generation
Genetics The science of heredity and of the mechanisms by which traits are passed from parents to offspring
Heredity The passing of genetic traits from parents to offspring
Law of Independent Assortment The law that states that genes separate independently of one another in meiosis
Law of Segregation Mendel's law that states that the pairs of homologous chromosomes separates in meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in each gamete
Molecular genetics The study of the structure of nucleic acids and the function and regulation of genes
P generation Parental generation; the first two individuals that mate in a genetic cross
Pollination The transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structures (the anthers) to the tip of a female reproductive structure (the pistil) of a flower in angiosperms or to the ovule in gymnosperms
Recessive Describes a trait or an allele that is expressed only when two recessive alleles for the same characteristic are inherited
Self-pollination The transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of the same flower or to the stigma of another flower on the same plant
Trait A genetically determined variant of a characteristic
True-breeding Describes organisms or genotypes that are homozygous for a specific trait and thus always produce offspring that have the same phenotype for that trait
Created by: CareGraceR