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Biology Ch. 4

Cells and Energy Vocabulary

ATP A molecule that transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to cell processes.
ADP A lower-energy molecule that can be converted into ATP by adding a phosphate group.
Chemosynthesis A process by which some organisms use chemical energy instead of light energy to make energy-storing carbon-based molecules.
Photosynthesis A process that captures energy from sunlight to make sugars that store chemical energy.
Chlorophyll A molecule in chloroplasts that absorbs some of the energy in visible light.
Electron transport chain Series of proteins in the thylakoid and mitochondrial membranes that aid in converting ADP to ATP by transferring electrons.
Calvin cycle Process by which a photosynthetic organism uses energy to synthesize simple sugars from CO2.
Cellular respiration Process of producing ATP by breaking down carbon based molecules when oxygen is present.
Aerobic Process that requires oxygen to occur.
Glycolysis Anaerobic process in which glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate and two net ATP are produced.
Anaerobic Process that does not require oxygen to occur.
Krebs cycle Process during cellular respiration that breaks down a carbon molecule to produce molecules that are used in the electron transport chain.
Fermentation Anaerobic process by which ATP is produced by glycolysis.
Lactic acid Product of fermentation in many types of cells including human muscle cells.
Created by: Mr.Devine



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