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Biology Chapter 6

Meiosis/Mitosis

TermDefinition
somatic cell somatic cell any of the cells of a plant or animal except the reproductive cells
gamete a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes
homologous chromosome one of a matching pair of chromosomes, one inherited from each parent
autosome any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
sex chromosome a chromosome that determines the sex of an individual
sexual reproduction reproduction involving the union or fusion of a male and a female gamete
fertilization process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell
diploid a cell or organism having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
haploid a cell or organism having a single set of chromosomes
meiosis cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
sperm male reproductive cell
egg female reproductive cell
trait a characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.
genetics the branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms
cross the act of mixing different species or varieties of animals or plants and thus to produce hybrids
law of segregation members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair
gene a segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
allele one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same locus on homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative traits
homozygous term used to refer to an organism that has two identical alleles for a particular trait
heterozygous term used to refer to an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait
genome the ordering of genes in a haploid set of chromosomes of a particular organism
genotype the entire genetic makeup of an organism; also the combination of genes for one or more specific traits
phenotype the physical traits that appear in an individual as a result of its genetic make up.
dominant trait that will show up in an organism's phenotype if gene is present
recessive The inherited characteristic often masked by the dominant characteristic and not seen in an organism.
Punnett Square a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
monohybrid cross a hybrid produced by crossing parents that are homozygous except for a single gene locus that has two alleles (as in Mendel's experiments with garden peas)
dihybrid cross a hybrid produced by parents that differ only at two gene loci that have two alleles each
law of independent assortment each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random
probability a measure of how likely it is that some event will occur
crossing over the interchange of sections between pairing homologous chromosomes during the prophase of meiosis
genetic linkage tendency for alleles of genes on the same chromosome to be inherited together
Created by: DakotahKrumrie