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Microbiology Midterm

Immune system and microorganisms

antiseptic free from or cleaned of germs and other microorganisms; chemicals on living tissue (Joseph Lister)
asespsis state of being free from disease causing contaminants
bacteriacidal any substance capable of killing bacteria
bacteriostatic the prevention of the further growth of bacteria
biohazard risk to health and environment
disinfectant agent such as heat, radiation, or chemicals that destroys, neutralizes, and inhibits the growth of disease carrying microo. on inanimate objects
fomites inanimate object that may be contaminated with infectious microo.
microbiology study of microscopic organisms
nosocomial infection hospital or health facility acquired infection
pathogen microo. that can cause disease
sanitation the development and application of sanitary measures for the sake of cleanliness
sterilization the destruction of all living microo. as pathogenic or saprophytic bacteria, vegetative forms and spores
what do pathogenic microo. cause? disease
when should you wash your hands in a microbio. lab? before, during, after
why are refrigerators useful? the slow the growth and spread of bacteria
where do viruses replicate? inside host cell
what was the first vaccine? when? smallpox 1798
who is given credit for figuring out that microbes can be effective vaccines? Salmon and Smith 1885
Koch's Postulates... procedure to establish specific cause of disease 1. find agent 2. inoculation of a pure culture must reproduce the same disease 3. agent must be used in experimental animals 4. obtain a culture again
how did people think disease used to be spread? they didn't know disease came from microo. but that disease came from vital forces in non-living things
who discovered viruses? Dimitri Iwanowski
what can be found inside a virus DNA & RNA
Louis Pasteur's Germ Theory... microo. cause disease
which lymphocytes produce antibodies? B lymphocytes
what are 3 clinical signs of swelling? redness, inflammation, pain
how long does it take to get an AAS degree for a Medical Lab Technician? 2 years
who agreed with spontaneous generation? John Needham
6 steps of viral reproduction... 1. attachment 2. penetration 3. replication 4. synthesis of virus 5. maturation of virus 6. lysis (virus bursts out of cell)
what are the outer layers of bacteria and viruses called? protein coat, capsid, cell wall
penicilin discovered 1928 and used during 1940s
rabies 1885
smallpox 1798
syphilis 1910
what are 2 parts of the human immune system? Innate immune system and Adaptive immune system
how long should you boil an object to sterilize it? 10-40 min
what are natural killer cells? part of innate immune system; cells that kill infected host cells by recognizing infected cells through the absence of normal surface proteins that are no longer produced because of viral infection
how does radiation sterilize? radiation separates the electrons from their orbit and breaks the pathogen's DNA
perforins pore forming proteins found in cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells
NLMEB neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils
what type of cells do phagocytosis? phagocytes
what is phagocytosis? when a cell consumes another cell
where are T cells made? bone marrow
Created by: daisy98