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How do scientists begin work? What must they do before experimentation? Scientific thinking usually begins with obserations, then they gather info from the observations called data (quantitive: numbers, qualitative: pictures). They then make an inference (an explanation based on prior knowledge) and a hypothesis.
What is a controlled experiment? What does it allow the scientist to isolate and test? An experiment where only one variable is changed at a time. All other variables are unchanged, or controlled. This allows the scientist to test his/her hypothesis.
What is a well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations? A theory.
What are the characteristics of living things? They're made up of cells, reproduce, based on a universal genetic code, grow and develop, obtain and use materials and energy, respond to their environment, maintain a stable environment, change over time (as a group).
What is cell specialization? Why is it important in multicellular organisms? Cells that are diverse; each type of cell performs a specialized function. Cells must be diverse in multicellular organisms so that they can perform different functions.
What is the process by which organisms keep their internal conditions fairly constant? Homostasis.
What is the term for the land, water, and air on Earth? Biosphere. (or ecosystem?)
What is the term for a group of organisms of one type living in the same place? A population.
What are the various levels of organization? Biosphere, ecosystem, community, population, organism, group of cells (organs, tissues, etc.), cells, molecules.
What is a compound? What is a solution? Compound: a substance formed by the chem. combo of 2 or more elements in definite proportions. Solution: a mixture of 2 or more substances where the molecules of the substances are evenly distributed.
What makes up a molecule of water? H2O; 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen.
Why does ice float on water? Water expands as it freezes, so ice is less dense than liquid water, making it float.
What is the most abundant compound in most living things? Water.
Why are water molecules polar? There is an uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms because of a water molecule's bent shape.
What are acids and bases? What does pH measure? Acids: any compound that produces H+ ions in solution. Bases: any compound that produces OH- ions (hydroxide). The pH scale measures the concentration of hydrogen ions.
A substance with a pH of 4 would be what? An acid.
Describe monosaccharides and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides: single sugar molecules. Polysaccharides: large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides.
Which of the organic compounds is the main source of energy for living things? Carbohydrates.
What is a chemical reactions? A process that changes or transforms one set of chemicals into another. Mass and energy are conserved during chemical transformations.
Identify the reactant(s) in a chemical reaction. Reactants are the elements or compounds that enter a chemical reaction.
What is the term used to describe the energy needed to get a reaction started? Activation energy.
What are catalysts? A substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction.
How do enzymes affect the reactions in living cells? Enzymes speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells by lowering the activation energy.
What is the the combined portions of Earth in which all living things exist? The biosphere.
All of the members of a particular species that live in one area are called a(an) _______. A population.
What is a producer? What is a consumer? Producer: Autotrophs (organisms that capture energy from sunlight or chemicals to make their own food). Consumer: Heterotrophs (organisms that rely on feeding on other organisms for their energy).
What is the original source of almost all the energy in most ecosystems? Sunlight.
What is an organism called that uses energy to produce its own food supply from inorganic compounds? Autotroph.
What is an organism called that cannot make its own food? Heterotroph.
Organisms that obtain nutrients by breaking down dead and decaying plants and animals are called what? Detritivores.
What is an organism that feeds only on plants called? Herbivore.
What is the total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level called? Biomass.
What is an ecological model of the relationships that form a network of complex interactions among organisms in a community from producers to decomposers? Food web.
What are the animals called that eat both producers and consumers? Omnivores.
What is the term for each step in the transfer of energy and matter within a food web? Trophic level.
A cat stalks, kills, and then eats a bird. Based on its behavior, which ecological terms describe the cat? Heterotroph, carnivore.
What is most of the energy available to a consumer trophic level used for? Only 10% of the energy is transferred to the next consumer. The rest is used by the organism or released into the environment as heat.
Which type of pyramid shows the amount of living tissue at each trophic level in an ecosystem? Biomass pyramid.
Why can matter recycle through the biosphere? Biological systems don't use up matter; they transform it. It's assembled as living tissue or passed out of the body as waste.
What is the repeated movement of water between Earth’s surface and the atmosphere called? Evaporation.
What does NOT recycle in the biosphere? Energy.
What is the process called by which bacteria convert nitrogen gas in the air to ammonia? Nitrogen fixation.
What are ways that carbon is stored in the biosphere? Biological processes (photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition), geochemical processes (erosion, volcanic activity), mixed biogeochemical processes (burial and decomposition of dead organisms converting into fossil fuels), and human activities.
Which organisms have a direct role in the nitrogen cycle? Bacteria (legumes).
Why do organisms need nutrients? To build tissues and carry out essential life functions.
How are the movements of energy and nutrients through living systems different? Energy flows one way.
What's the importance of biogeochemical cycling? Elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another through biogeochemical cycles.
What is climate? The average year-after-year conditions of temps. and precipitation in a particular region.
What is the greenhouse effect? The natural situation where heat is retained by a layer of greenhouse gases.
Effect of Earth's three main climate zones. Polar zones: cold areas where the sun's rays strike at a low angle. Temperate zones: between polar and tropical zones, ranges from hot to cold depending on the season Tropical zones: near equator, most directly hit with sunlight.
What is an abiotic factor? Physical, nonliving factors that shape an ecosystem (temp., wind, nutrient availability).
What is a biotic factor? The biological influences on organisms within an ecosystem (birds, trees, bacteria, etc.).
What is an organism’s niche? The full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way it uses those conditions.
What is predation? An interaction where one organism captures and feeds on another.
A symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit is called? Mutualism. (Commensalism: one species benefits, one's not harmed/helped. Parasitism: one species helped, one harmed).
The series of predictable changes that occurs in a community over time is called what? Ecological succession.
What is the difference between primary and secondary succession? Primary: a succession on land that occurs where no soil exists (on surfaces of ash after an eruption or on rocks after glaciers melt). Secondary: a succession that occurs after a disturbance (after a wildfire, earthquake).
Which is a factor that could interrupt the progress of succession? Climate change, human activities.
Climate conditions in a small area that differ significantly from the climate of the surrounding area are called what? Microclimate.
What is population density? The number of individuals per unit area.
What is the movement of organisms into a given area from another area called? Immigration.
What is emigration? The movement of individuals out of an area.
Explain what must occur in a population for it to grow. More births, less deaths, more immigrations.
Explain what is happening in a population as it decreases. More deaths than births, emigration.
What happens to a population when resources become less available? There would be more deaths, leading to a decline in population.
In a logistic growth curve, exponential growth is the phase in which the population does what? Grow/reproduce at a constant rate. A logistic growth also has a stop after the exponential curve.
If a population grows larger than the carrying capacity of the environment what happens? The growth stops around the carrying capacity.
What are density-independent limiting factors? They are factors that affect all populations in similar ways, regardless of the population.
What density-dependent factors other than the predator/prey relationship affected the populations of moose and wolves on Isle Royale? There could've been parasitism or diseases.
What does a diagram of a population’s age structure show? What predictions can be made? It shows the population of a country broken down by gender and age group. You can predict the population in the future.
How is energy is released from ATP? By breaking the chemical bond between the second and third phosphates.
Ingenhousz showed that plants produce what? Where does most of the mass of a plant come from? Plants can transform CO2 and water into carbohydrates and also release oxygen in the presence of light. Most of the mass is from CO2, H2O, and carbohydrates.
Photosynthesis uses sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into what materials? High-energy sugars and 6 oxygen.
What materials are used in the overall reactions for photosynthesis? 6 Water, 6 CO2, light, chlorophyll.
How do plants take in the sun’s energy? Pigments like chlorophyll absorb it.
Why do most plants appear green? The chlorophyll doesn't absorb the sunlight well in the green region of the spectrum, so green light is reflected by the leaves.
What is a granum? A stack of thylakoids embedded in the stroma of a chloroplast.
The Calvin cycle is also known as what type of reaction? Why? A light-independent reaction, because it does not require light.
What is a product of the Calvin cycle? High energy sugars.
What would happen if carbon dioxide is completely removed from a plant’s environment? What would you expect to happen to the plant’s production of high-energy sugars? Because the Calvin cycle requires CO2, it won't work, and therefore it won't produce any high-energy sugars.
What conditions affects the rate of photosynthesis? Shortage of water, temperature, and intensity of light.
What are the stages of cellular respiration? Glycolysis -> Krebs cycle -> Electron transport chain.
What is released during cellular respiration? 6 CO2, 6 H2O, energy.
What is the equation for cellular respiration? 6 O2 + C6H12O6 -> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy.
What is the starting molecule for glycolysis? Glucose.
What acts as an electron carrier in cellular respiration? NAD+
Lactic acid fermentation occurs where? In your muscles during rapid exercise when your body can't supply enough oxygen.
Explain alcoholic fermentation. It is anaerobic (a process that doesn't require oxygen) and happens to certain microorganisms like yeast after glycolysis. The reactants are pyruvic acid and NADH; the products are ethyl alcohol, CO2, and NAD+.
If oxygen is present, glycolysis is followed by what step? The Krebs cycle.
Why is cellular respiration is called an aerobic process? It's a process that requires oxygen.
The energy of the electrons passing along the electron transport chain is used to make what? To convert ADP into ATP.
When the body needs to exercise for longer than 90 seconds, it generates ATP by carrying out what process? Cellular respiration.
Explain how cellular respiration and photosynthesis are almost opposite processes. Photosynthesis: "deposits" energy, captures energy, takes place in the chloroplast, produces C6H12O6 + O2 CR: "withdraws" energy, releases energy, takes place in mitochondria. produces CO2 + H2O.
How are the products of photosynthesis used in cellular respiration? O2: helps release energy from food. C6H12O6: the food.
How does science differ from other disciplines, such as history and the arts? Scientists continue to question and it's a way of knowing rather than an unchanging knowledge.
Created by: melo2