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Biology Quick Study

Nucleus "control center" of the cell; stores DNA
Mitochondria produces ATP (energy) through respiration
Chloroplast produces glucose (sugar) through photosynthesis
Ribosome makes protein during DNA translation
Cell membrane controls what enters or exits the cell
vacuole stores water and salts
cell wall protects the plant cell and bacteria cells
lysosome digest things in the cell
Golgi package things and send them where they need to go
E.R. assembly line of the cell
centriole helps with animal cell division
Prokaryote lacks a nucleus; only bacteria
Eukaryote has a nucleus
Differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Pro - plasmid, capsule, tiny Eu - specialized organelles, larger
plasmid small circular loop of DNA in bacteria
capsule sticky coating around the outside of bacteria
binary fission how bacteria reproduce
virus non-living, self replicating; made of just protein and DNA; injects DNA into healthy cell to replicate
Surface Area to Volume ratio The larger the ratio, the more efficient a cell is in getting nutrients inside
diffusion movement of small particles from high concentration to low; no energy
osmosis diffusion of water
lipid bilayer or Fluid Mosaic Model cell membrane
facilitated transport channel that allows larger things to move through cell membrane from high to low concentration; no energy
transport protein changes shape to allow bigger things into or out of the cell; needs energy
endocytosis getting big thing INTO the cell
exocytosis getting big things OUT of the cell
passive transport no energy needed
active transport energy needed
cilia fine hairs used for movement
flagella whip-like structure used for movement
pseudopod false foot (amoeba)
Photosynthesis the process of using light to turn carbon dioxide and water into sugar and oxygen
Respiration the process of turning sugar and oxygen into carbon dioxide, water, and ATP
ATP molecule of energy
Autotroph makes its own food
Heterotroph gets food from other things
Trophic level each step of the food chain
Fermentation process where organisms make energy without needing oxygen, and alcohol is an extra product
Aerobic needs oxygen
Anaerobic doesn't need oxygen
DNA heredity material that has the "code" for a living thing
Double helix spiral shape of DNA
Nucleotide monomer (piece) of DNA
Nitrogen base G,T,A,C (DNA) G,U,A,C (RNA)
Complementary base pairs A-T, C-G (DNA) A-U, C-G (RNA)
Watson and Crick figured out the shape of DNA
RNA copies a section of DNA, and then translates that into a protein
mRNA carries the DNA message to the ribosome
DNA replication making a copy of a DNA strand
Transcription DNA -> RNA
Translation RNA --> protein
Amino acid building block (monomer) of a protein
Peptide bond bond that holds amino acids together
Central dogma DNA ----> RNA ----> protein
Franklin helped with DNA structure
DNA fingerprinting help identify a person based on their DNA pattern
Cloning identical copy
Human Genome Project map of the human genome
codon set of three bases that code for an amino acid
Created by: GarrisonWAHS