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Bio Final (Exam 2)

population all of a species in one location
population ecology the study of how populations interact with each other and their environments
population density the distribution of a population throughout a region
demography quantitative study of populations
homeostasis maintaining relatively stable internal conditions
survivorship curve visual representation of the mortality rate across a lifetime
behavioral adaptation a change in behavior that makes an organism better adapted to its environment
exponential growth the way in which populations grow when there is no limit to their growth
ecological footprint the amount of fertile land needed by one organism at their standard of life
population range where a population lives
life table of a cohort a table following a certain age group of a population from birth through death of the last one, showing fecundity and survival rates
fecundity characteristic birth rate
spacing patterns of populations random, grouped, uniform
random population spacing occurs when there isn't much interaction
grouped population spacing when one organism makes conditions more favorable for the others
uniform population spacing occurs when there are factors such as competition or territories
carrying capacity (K) the maximum population that an environment can support
semelparity one big reproductive event followed by death
iteroparity repeated mating events over multiple seasons
community all of the species living in a certain area
community ecology the study of how communities interact within, with each other, and with their environment
species richness how many species there are in an area
keystone species a species which exerts an unusually large influence on the surrounding community
primary productivity the activity done by primary producers
succession the growth or regrowth of a community
ecological niche the specific role and place of a species
climax community the final community that forms at the end of succession
predation one species feeds on another
coevolution when species cause each other to evolve by placing a strong selective pressure on them
competitive exclusion principle if two species compete for a limited resource, the better adapted one will drive the other to extinction
cryptic coloration camouflage to blend in
resource partitioning if the resources are divided, two groups can survive in the same environment
mimicry appearing like another organism to benefit from mistaken identity
character displacement selection prefers those species which use untapped resources
commensalism form of symbiosis in which one species benefits and the other isn't effected
symbiosis when two organisms have a long term close interaction
primary successsion from scratch
secondary succession from something
ecosystem all of the biotic and abiotic aspects of a place
ecosystem ecology the study of how ecosystems interact with one another and the environment
primary producer autotrophs which get energy directly from the enviroment
heterotroph organisms which get energy from other organisms
trophic level a way of measuring how far removed from the sun an organism is in terms of energy source
food chain a linear progression of energy through trophic levels
pyramid of numbers broken up by trophic level
pyramid of biomass broken up by trophic level (can be inverted)
pyramid of energy can't be inverted
energy flow diagrams show the progression of energy
eutrophication when large amounts of nutrients runoff into water, causing them to get choked with plants. As those plants die and decompose, the decomposing bacteria drain the oxygen from the water
herbivores eat plants
carnivores eat meat
ecology the study of organisms and how they interact with each other and their environments
biome a distinct region with similar weather conditions
greenhouse effect certain gasses effectively trap solar radiation, warming the planet
tundra biome characterized by cold, permafrost, and few trees or animals
coral reef highly biodiverse sub-biome found in the shallow portion of the ocean
biomagnification process by which a substance found in trace amounts in an organism at the bottom of the food chain builds up in organisms at the top of the chain
DDT pesticide which made eggshells weak in birds of prey due to biomagnification
what two characteristics of a biome are most important temperature and precipitation
what gasses are responsible for the greenhouse effect CO2, methane, nitrous oxide
realized niche place where a population actually lives
fundamental niche area where a population could theoretically live
LOOK AT THE CYCLES water, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous
which cycle doesn't have a gaseous phase? phosphorous
oligotrophic lakes low nutrients and high oxygen
cost of reproduction the reduction in future reproductive output as a consequence of current reproduction
why is nitrogen often a limiting resource? most organisms can't use elemental nitrogen
interspecific competition between multiple species
intraspecific competition within one species
Created by: evan787