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Bio Final (Exam 1)

Bio Final Review

7 characteristics of life made of cells, ordered complexity, respond to external stimuli, adapted to their environment, use energy, grow and reproduce, maintain homeostasis
5 causes of evolutionary change natural selection, non-random mating, gene flow, genetic drift, mutation
Hardy-Weinberg Equations p+q=1 p^2+2pq+q^2=1
Biology study of life
levels of organization cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere
domains of life Eukarya, Archaea, Bacteria
Jean Baptise-Lamark evolution came from traits acquired over an organisms life
types of comparative anatomy homologous, analogous, vestigial
homologous different function but came from the same body part on the same ancestor
analogous similar function but come from different sources
vestigial leftovers from ancestral needs
genome all the genetic information of an organism
proteome all the genetic information of an organism which codes for a protein
gene information which codes for a single protein
gene pool all the possible alleles for a certain gene within a population
allele possible option for a gene
gene flow the passage of genes in and out of a population due to immigration and emigration
genetic drift large changes to the gene pool of a population due to small population size (often due to chance)
evolutionary fitness an organisms ability to successfully reproduce and pass on its genetic information to offspring
phenotype the physical expression of an organism's genes
vertical evoltuion the passage of genetic information from generation to generation
horizontal evolution the passage of genetic information within a generation
biological species concept a species is a group which can interbreed and produce viable offspring. Speciation occurs whenever two populations become reproductively isolated
allopatric separation separated geographically
sympatric speciation distinct species within one environment
gradualism evolutionary change happens slowly over millions of years
punctuated equilibrium long periods of evolutionary stagnation followed by periods of intense evolution
phylogenetic species concept species are groups of populations that have been evolving independently of other groups of populations. Looks at whether there are shared derived characteristics
types of reproductive isolation behavioral, temporal, mechanical, gametic, ecological
cell theory all living things are made of cells, cells come from other cells
behavioral isolation mating rituals
temporal isolation different mating seasons
mechanical it doesn't fit
gametic the gamete cannot form
ecological they occupy different parts of their environments and so rarely interact
adaptive radiation whenever a new environment with ample resources and low competition occurs, a species may evolve into many similar species, each well adapted to their environment
major categories of domain eukarya plants, fungi, protists, animals
types of evolution directional, stabilizing, disruptive
stabilizing evolution favors the intermediate and eliminates the extremes
disruptive evoltuion favors the extremes and eliminates the intermediates
directional evolution favors one extreme
ecosystem the biological community and the surrounding environment
biological community all the populations in an environment
polypoloidy having three or more sets of chromosomes
Jean Baptise-Lamark's theory acquired trait inheritance
Created by: evan787