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Advanced Higher Bio

Unit 1 Membrane Proteins

What is a transmembrane protein one that spans the membrane
What is the function of transmembrane proteins to transport molecules across the membrane
What are the two types of transmembrane proteins 1. channels 2. transporters
How do channel proteins move molecules across membrane passive transport/diffusion
What name is given to all channel proteins that involve a conformational change gated channels
What are the two types of gated channels 1. ligand 2. Voltage
What type of gated channel responds to hyperpolarisation/depolarisation voltage gated channels
What type of channel transports water across the membrane aquaporin
what are the two ways to transport water across the membrane and contrast their efficiency 1. aquaporin (most efficient) 2. phospholipid spaces (less efficient)
How do small uncharged molecules cross the plasma membrane through gaps in phospholipids
Name a small uncharged molecule oxygen/carbon dioxide
True or false different cell types/ compartments have different channel and transporter proteins. true
What triggers conformational change in voltage gated channels change in ion concentration across membrane e.g. K or Na move across membrane causing hyper/depolarisation
What causes a ligand gated channel to open specific ligand (signal molecule)
Give an example of a ligand or voltage gated channel K or Na channel (do not confuse with Na/K ATPase
Name two transporters 1. glucose symport 2. Na/K ATPase
By what process is glucose moved across cell facilitated diffusion i.e. Na needed to provide energy for glucose to move
By what process does Na/K ATPase move ions across membrane active transport
What provides energy for Active transport of Na or K energy from hydrolysis of ATP
In the unphosphorylated state the Na/K pump has a high affinity for Sodium
How many Na leave the cell in the Na/K pump 3
How many K enter the cell via the Na/K pump 2
In what direction does Na move via the Na/K pump from intracellular (cytoplasm) to extracellular (outside) cell
In what direction does K move via the Na/K pump from extracellular (outside) to intraceullar (cytoplasm)
In the phosphorylated state the Na/K pump has high affinity for Potassium
What feature defines a molecules as a transporter They must change CONFORMATION to work
What happens first Na leaves cell OR pi binds to Na/K ATPase pi binds to Na/K ATPase
What causes the Na/K pump to change conformation Pi binding or becoming unbound
Describe the key stages of the Na/K ATPase unphosphorylated 3 Na binds inside the cell; phosphorylation by ATP causes conformational changes releasing 3 Na outside High affinity for K outside in phosphorylated state, Dephosphorylation & conformational change 2 K released inside cell
Name 2 roles of Na/K ATPase 1. maintaining osmotic balance in animal cells; 2. generation of the ion gradient for glucose symport in small intestine; 3. generation and maintenance of ion gradient for resting potential in neurons 4.generation of iongradient in kidney tubule
Name 3 responses to a cell following signal transduction 1. activation of an enzyme or G protein (photoreceptor eye) 2. change in uptake or secretion of molecule (nerve impulse) 3. rearrangement of cytoskeleton (cell cycle) 4. activation of proteins that regulate gene transcription.(hydrophilic signalling)
resting membrane potential is approx -70 mv
What term means the cell is getting more positive depolarisation
what term means the cell is getting more negative hyperpolarisation
What is the first step in a nerve impulse Signal molecule ieneurotransmitter, triggers the opening of ligand-gated ion channels at a synapse
. If sufficient ion movement occurs changing the voltage the ion concentrations either side of membrane voltage-gated ion channels will open and the effect travels along the length of the nerve
Once the wave of depolarisation has passed what happens next? hyperpolarisation
Describe how hyperpolarisation (becoming more negative) occurs the channel proteins that were open now close and others open in the opposite direction to restore the resting potential.
Created by: kyle_academy
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