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Study Guide 1

For Bio Final

Seven characteristics of living organisms
What is homeostasis? the maintaining of a healthy and stable envrironment
How does reaction rate change with temp in biological reactions? raises
How does reaction rate change with pH in biological reactions? bell shaped curve
What is pH? measure of Hydrogen ion concentration in a solution
What is a buffer and how does it work? a solution that resists changes in pH when acid or alkali is added to it because conjugate acid and base are present
What is metabolism? set of life-sustaining chemical transformations
What is anabolism? set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units
Catabolism? breakdown molecules to smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy, or used in other anabolic reactions
What is an exergonic reaction? releasing energy, spontaneous, complex----> simple
What is an endergonic reaction? require energy, not spontaneous, simple -----> complex
What is the energy of activation in an exergonic reaction? progress shown by the line
What ways does an enzyme change a chemical reaction? 1. speeds up 2. lowers energy of activation
What is phosplorylation and what impacts can it have on biological molecules? sticking a phosphate group on an organic molecule. Can regulate catalytic activity of the protein and recruit neighboring proteins
What is hydrophobic and how does it relate to polar and non polar molecules? non polar= hydrophobic
What is hydrophilic and how does it relate to polar and non polar molecules? polar= partially positive and partially negative, dissolve in water making it hydrophilic
What is special about carbon atoms that make them central to our organic molecules? easy to bond to, can form many bonds
Types of chemical bonds? Covalent- e+ from the outer shell of 2 atoms are shared w/ each other in order to complete both shells Hydrogen- when 1 H- from a polar molecule becomes electrically attached to an electronegative atom in another polar atom Ionic- cation binds to anion
What is an electroneutral bond?
types of carbs? monosaccharides- simple sugars disaccharides- high fructose corn syrup polysaccharides- glycogen, starch, cellulose
What polysaccharide is the primary form of stored carbohydrate in animal cells? plant cells? glycogen starch
What polysaccharide make up the cell walls of plants? cellulose
What is the primary structure of proteins and how important is it to the function of proteins? polypeptide strand
What is the 3D structure of proteins and is it important to their function? How can that structure be changed to modulate the function of the protein? polypeptide strand helix pleated sheet myoglobin molecule hemoglobin
What are the components of a lipid? fatty acid- hydrophobic
What is a saturated lipid? H-C-H
What is an unsaturated lipid? H H H H I I I I C- C=C- C I I H H
What are two other names for lipids? fat, fatty acids
Are lipids hydrophobic or hydrophilic? hydrophobic
How do you make a phosopholipid from a lipid? Glycerol backbone and two fatty acids
What is the special property we observe in phospholipid molecules? Amphipathic- both hydrophobic and hydrophilic
What are phosopholipids well suited for making the primary component of biological membranes? selectively permeable, like water
In what form with phosopholipids spontanteously form that resembles the primary structure of a biological membrane? semi-permeable membrane
What characteristic of this primary structure automatically makes it selectively permeable? What does it let through and what does it prevent from moving through? excludes water and other polar molecules
How important is this property of semi-permeability and why? prevents other materials from destroying the cell
Based on what you know about this primary structure, should water be able to pass through it? Why or why not?
If water passes through how does it to it?
What is an aquaporin? specific pore proteins that only let water through
What is diffusion through a biological membrane? name criteria movement of a molecular species from an area of high concentration to low concentration. permeable membrane.
Define osmosis and how it allows a system to move toward an equilibrium movement of water from low concentration to high to achieve equilibrium
What are the two types of carrier-mediated transport discussed in class? facilitated diffusion and saturated kinetics
Why to carrier-mediated transport system display saturation kinetics? (What are saturation kinetics?) movement of glucose subsides
What is facilitated diffusion and what is the energy source for it? spontaneous passive transport of molecules or ions across a membrane via specific transmembrane integral proteins. gradient.
What are the properties of facilitated diffusion? specific, needs alot in order to move glucose
What is active transport and what is the energy source for it? carrier-mediated transport from an area of low concentration to high
What is exocytosis? materials are secreted out of the cell
What is endocytosis? materials enter the cell
What are the properties of enzyme function? specificity, active site, saturation kinetics, competitive inhibition, non competitive inhibition, irreversable inhibitors, allosteric modulation, cofactors and coenzymes
What is the substrate? molecule that interacts with enzyme to produce reaction
What is enzyme specificity and what properties of the enzyme and substrate determine it? could be very specific to fairly general
Why do enzymes show saturation kinetics? increase enzyme concentration. more enzymes= higher saturation rate
What is allosteric modulation and how does it work? modulation that occurs due to interaction of modulator at a site other than the active site
What is competitive inhibition of enzyme activity? binding of the inhibitor to the active site on the enzyme prevents binding of the substrate
What is non-competitive inhibition of enzyme activity? binds to the enzyme away from the active site, altering the shape of the enzyme so that even if the substrate can bind, the active site functions less effectively
Can you reverse competitive inhibition by increasing substrate concentration?
Can you reverse non-competitive inhibition by increasing substrate concentration?
Created by: sbm4175