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National 5 Cell Bio

Revision for DNA/proteins/GE

QuestionAnswer
The order of bases in DNA determines order of... amino acids
enzymes are made of protein
What is the function of hormones chemical messengers
what protein defends the body against disease antibodies
what protein speeds up chemical reactions enzymes
a ring of genetic material in a bacteria is a plasmid
enzymes are also called this biological catalysts
breaks down H2O2 to oxygen and water catalase
breaks down protein to amino acids pepsin
breaks down starch to maltose amylase
breaks down fats to fatty acid and glycerol lipase
DNA and mRNA are made of nucleotides
enzyme reactions work best at the optimum
where an enzyme binds with a substrate active site
this happens to enzymes at high temperatures denatures
enzyme involved In a synthesis reaction phosphorylase
enzymes only work on one substrate, they are specific
carries genetic code from nucleus to the ribosome mRNA
where protein synthesis occurs Ribosome
base partner of A T
base partner of T A
base partner of G C
base partner of C G
where AEROBIC respiration occurs mitochondria
process to transfer human genes to bacteria genetic engineering
modified plasmids are placed here a different bacteria cell
human hormone produced by genetic engineering insulin
genetic information can pass between bacteria this way horizontal gene transfer i.e. plasmids transferred between bacteria
What is the enzyme that breaks down fat lipase
What is the enzyme that breaks down protein pepsin
What is the enzyme that breaks down starch amylase
What is the enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide catalase
what is the enzyme that makes starch phosphorylase
what is the enzyme that makes amino acids pepsin
What does catalase reacting with hydrogen peroxide produce water and oxygen
what does amylase reacting with starch produce maltose
Name a degrading enzyme catalase OR amylase OR pepsin OR lipase
what is the optimum pH for catalase 9 (alkali)
What is the optimum pH for pepsin 3 (acid)
What two products does lipase reacting with fat produce fatty acids and glycerol
what are the three parts to a DNA nucleotide sugar, phosphate and base
What is the 3D structure of DNA called double helix
What does DNA code for protein
Where is DNA found nucleus
What is the journey of a mRNA molecule when it carries the genetic code nucleus to ribosome
What two effects does the order of amino acids cause the structure and therefore the function of the protein
Name 4 types of proteins antibodies, enzymes, receptors, hormones and structural proteins
what is the function of structural proteins to provide support in membrane
what is the function of receptors to bind with a specific hormone at the target tissue
what structures on chromosomes code for a specific protein genes
what is meant by complementary bases A and T, C and G
Name a differences between DNA and RNA DNA has 2 strands and RNA is only 1 strand
What is meant by denaturing change the shape of the active site
Name two factors that affect enzymes pH and temperature
what molecule cuts genes out of chromosomes in genetic engineering enzymes
What is the first stage of genetic engineering identify section of DNA that contains required gene from chromosome
What is the second stage of genetic engineering after identifying gene on chromosome extract required gene with enzymes
What is the third stage of genetic engineering after extracting gene from chromosome extract plasmid from bacterial cell and cut open with enzymes
What is the fourth stage of genetic engineering after extracting plasmid for bacterial cell insert human gene into plasmid
What is the fifth stage of genetic engineering after insert plasmid into different bacteria
What is the sixth stage of genetic engineering after inserting plasmid into different bacteria grow bacteria in fermenter and extract protein produced
Give an advantage of genetic engineering produce large quantities of protein OR fast process
Give an example of a genetically engineered protein insulin OR human growth hormone
Created by: kyle_academy