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Biology Final

Hierarchical Organization Biosphere(entire planet), Ecosystem(biological organ), Community(populations living together), Species(Specific organisms), Population(Organisms)
Variables(Independent, Dependent, Control) Independent(Manipulated), Dependent(Results from independent), Control(Doesn't change)
Emergent properties/Reductionism theory Emergent(Whole is more than parts) / Reductionism(Larger organization made of smaller parts)
Primary Process responsible for evolutionary change Natural selection, Variation, Mutations, and gene pool traits
Convergent Evolution Species evolved and adapted parallel to each other in separate geographic locations
Adaption vs Extinction Adaption(natural selection) Extinction(replaced by a fitter species to fill niche)
4 elements that make up most of the human body O,C,H,N=96% of body
Electron arrangement and how electron behaves electrons determines how an atom behaves
Compounds, molecules, atoms Compounds(2-3 molecules), Molecules(2+ elements), Atoms(Elements)
Covalent, Ionic, Hydrogen bonds Covalent(Strongest/Definitive shape), Ionic(Magnetic/pulling charges), Hydrogen(easily broken and reformed)
Why ice floats Hydrogen bonds freeze into place where it creates space between molecules
Acids/Bases H+(Acids) OH-(Base)
4 biological molecules Carbs, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acid
Hydrolysis and dehydration reactions Hydrolysis(breaks a macromolecule apart by adding water molecule) Dehydration(Joins monomers together by removing a H20
Starch as storage molecule(Shape) Large strong storage in helical shape
Unsaturated fats Kinks in c backbone so H+ cannot fit.
Amino Acids(peptide bonds) Amino group and carboxyl group
Hypercholesterolemia (How it works) Functional LDL receptors missing= accumulation of excess cholesterol in blood
Prokaryotic cells DNA- about 1 chromosome, cell membrane
Size of prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic cells 1/10 vs eukaryotic -> orgnalles, double membranes, more genes/chromosomes
Lysosomes Break down old organelles-hydrolytic enzymes to digest waste
2nd law of thermodynamics unusable energy converted to heat, increase entropy->random disorganization
cycle of change from ADP to ATP, ATP to ADP ADP->ATP= Phosphorylation ATP->ADP=Hydrolysis
Enzymes:inhibitors/competitive inhibitors Chemical interference attaches by covalent bonds causing reaction to become irreversible
How RNA is catalyzed Ribosymes->RNA catalysts
Plasma membrane and permeability Selective permeability-> only certain molecules can pass
Composition of outer surface of membranes Carbohydrates, Gycloproteins, Gyclolipids
What does each glucose molecule produce 38 ATP, 40% total energy, 60% Heat
Oxidation and reduction reactions Oxidation(Loss of electrons) Reduction(Gain of electrons)
Final stage of oxidative phosphorylation Chemiosmosis / Electron transport chain
Pigment Absorption Absorb low energy light from visible spectrum
Location of where the photosystem II takes place Thylakoids
Purpose of ribulose bisphosphate Recaptures co2 from air
Genes of Eukaryotic vs Prokaryotic cells 30,000 vs 3,000
M Phase PMAT- G1, G2, M Phase Cell division, Cytogenesis, Chromosome division
How cancer can spread(tumors) Circulating system, cells separate from tumors.
Meiosis I: prophase synapsis, crossing over, tetrads(4)
Anaphase Pulled to the opposite poles, still in pairs.
Telophase Cytokinesis, nucleoli reappear, nuclear envelope reappears.
Dominant vs Recessive Equal Chance
Genetic Linkage Genes close together, inherited together- directly proportional to distance apart.
Recessive disorders(Inherited alleles) Carriers Aa-Heterozygous (Both parents), AA x AA(100% dominant), aa x aa(Not possible-Death before reproductive age)
sex-linked disorders(who does it affect and why?) More males->shortened y chromosomes
Co-dominant alleles same dominant traits together like AB blood
Birth defects (translocation) Translocation(Fragment attaches to non-homologous chromosome)
DNA backbone and bonds Sugar- Phosphate(Covalent bonds)
DNA nucleotide pairing DNA= A w/ T G w/ C
RNA nucleotide pairing RNA= A w/ U G w/ C
Model of DNA replication Semi-conservative-> half parental molecule maintained
Jobs of DNA Polymerase, Ligase, Nuclease polymerase(Adds nucleotides and proofreads Ligase(Paste fragments), Nuclease(DNA cutting enzyme)
Direction that transcription runs 5 to 3
Equation of protein synthesis DNA to RNA to Proteins
Where transcription, translation occurs Transcription(Nucleus) Translation(Cytoplasm)
Codons(What are they) 3 nucleotide sequence(Amino Acids)
Anticodons(What are they and how do they pair) 3 nucleotides sequence, complimentary to codon
Start and stop codons AUG(Start) UAA,UAG,UGA (Stop)
The cap and tail (not included in translocation) Protection during transport
What starts transcription Promoter
Introns and Exons Introns(blank regions) Exons(Coding regions)
Where does mRNA bind to Small ribosomal unit
Purpose of tRNA Transporter
Aneuploidy Abnormal chromosomal # (Too many or too few) Too many-Down Syndrome Too few- Cri Du Chat
Reverse transcriptase RNA is mutated and enters nucleus, makes DNA copy of RNA, mutates DNA permanently, RNA leaves to infect other cells.
Use of enzymes to make what Reverse transcriptase enzymes
Proto-oncogenes Normal gene that has potential to become engines (Mutation hot spots)
Cancer Mutation w/in genes(Usually 4 or more)
Signal transduction pathways Signals for rapid growth and division
Mutations in what kind of cells Somatic cells
Tumors and cancer Benign vs malignate-not all tumors are cancerous
BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumor suppressor gene for breast tissue
What do activators bind to for gene regulation Proteins
Are they always off or on Off until gene expression turns on (except from Glycoses)
Histones Packed around DNA to prevent gene expressions, beads, linkers
XX chromosomes in calico cats Both xx must be turned on to create orange fur
How is each gene unique for gene expression has its own promoter
what are enhancers(eukaryotic transcription) DNA sequence
What does translation of mRNA produce Protein
Homeotic gene correct body parts placement
Homeoboxes 180 nucleotide sequences similarity between mouse & fly
recombinant DNA technology uses combine genes from different sources into single DNA molecules
What are plasmids small circular DNA molecules
Where do they come from(plasmids) Bacterium
What are restriction enzymes and approximately how many are there Use to cut a DNA sequence at a specific sequence/ 100's different restriction enzymes
cDNA: What is it and why is it easy to work with? Does not have introns (Complimentary DNA)
What is DNA technology and gene cloning used for in medications and diagnosis used in human insulin, HGH, Vaccines
How can they be used Sheeps milk-> Secrete protein for treatment cystic fiber
DNA microarray thousands of different kinds single stranded DNA fragments
Gel electrophoresis: shorter and longer fragments Short fragments travel farther
DNA charge is negatively charged and moves toward positive poles
RFLPs DNA fragments produced by the restriction enzymes
Gene Therapy
PCR disadvantages
Who is using GMs
What are they
Where do true stem cells have come from 6 day old embryo (Blastocyst)
Created by: bharris31