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Unit 3 Semester 1

Composition of the Earth

Mohs scale a standard of ten minerals by which the hardness of all minerals may be rated
aggregate a mass or body of rock particles, mineral grains, or a mixture of both
asthenosphere the upper part of the earth's mantle
chemical describes a process of sedimentary rock formation whereby minerals in water are left, or precipitated, when the water evaporates away
chemical composition the elements that make up a rock or a mineral
clastic a rock or sediment made up of fragments derived from preexisting rocks or minerals and that have been transported from their place of origin
cleavage the tendency of a mineral to break along one or more distinct planes
compounds substances containing atoms of two or more different elements
covalent bonding a chemical bond produced by the sharing of electrons
crystal structure the regular, orderly, and repeated arrangement of atoms in a crystal
electron a tiny part of an atom with a negative electrical charge
erosion the gradual removal of the surface of the land by water, wind, or glaciers
extrusive describes igneous rock formed when lava solidifies on earth’s surface
felsic light
foliation texture in metamorphic rock characterized by layers or sheets of minerals
fossil the trace or remains of an organism preserved in rock
fracture the tendency of a mineral to break unevenly
humus organic matter in soil produced from the decomposition of plants and animals
igneous rock rock formed by the cooling and solidification of hot liquid magma or lava
inorganic derived from nonliving things
intrusive coarse
ionic bonding a bond that forms between a positively charged ion and a negatively charged ion
ions an atom that has unequal numbers of protons and electrons, and is therefore positively or negatively charged
lava molten rock or magma that emerges onto the earth's surface
lithification the process of converting sediments to solid rock, generally by cementing or compacting them
lithosphere the rocky outer layer of the solid earth, averaging about 100 km in depth; the lithosphere includes the continents, islands, and the entire ocean floor
mafic dark colored igneous rock, or molten rock, with low silica and high iron magnesium content
magma the molten or partly molten mixture of minerals, gases, and melted rock found below the earth's surface
metamorphic rock rock that has undergone change, caused by intense heat and pressure, from an earlier form, without melting
mineral any naturally occurring inorganic solid substance with a fixed chemical composition and crystal structure
neutron a neutral particle with approximately the same mass as a proton, found in nuclei of atoms along with protons
ore a rock that contains a mineral that can be mined for profit
organic living or derived from living organisms
pegmatitic texture describes the texture of very coarse grained igneous rocks, having crystals larger than 3 cm
porphyritic texture describes the texture of igneous rocks that have large crystals embedded in a finer grained matrix
proton a positively charged particle found in the nuclei of atoms
sedimentary rock rock formed when sediments are compressed together and lithified (turned to stone; that is, consolidated from loose sediment to solid rock)
stratification the formation, accumulation, or deposition of material in layers; specifically the arrangement of sedimentary rocks in strata (layers)
uniformitarianism the idea that processes at work today on earth are the same processes that worked on earth in the past; accounts for geologic features and geologic changes
vent an opening in the earth´s surface through which volcanic materials extrude; also the conduit through which they pass
volcanic neck an isolated, steep remnant of lava that once occupied the vent of a volcano
weathering the process by which a rock or mineral is broken down
Created by: SCID